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  • Author or Editor: Shianne Koplitz x
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Abstract

Objective—To determine whether platelet clumps are homogeneously distributed in blood samples, and whether platelet concentrations (PC) obtained by use of impedance and buffy coat analysis can be considered minimum values when platelet clumps are present.

Design—Prospective study.

Sample Population—50 blood samples obtained from 30 dogs.

Procedure—10 blood samples containing platelet clumps were used and 10 smears were made from each sample; amount of platelet clumping was graded for all 100 smears. Blood from each of 20 healthy dogs was divided between 2 EDTA tubes before and after platelet clumping was induced by adenosine diphosphate (ADP). The PC for each ADP-treated and untreated sample were measured, using impedance and quantitative buffy coat analyzers.

Results—Platelet clumps were evident in all 100 blood smears, but the amount of clumping varied considerably within some samples. Using the impedance analyzer, the PC of ADP-treated samples were significantly lower and never higher than the PC of untreated samples. Using the buffy coat analyzer, some ADPtreated samples had increased PC; however, significant differences were not detected between treated and untreated samples.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Platelet clumping was not homogeneous within blood samples. When platelet clumps were identified by direct examination of blood smears, the PC detected by use of the impedance analyzer could be considered minimum values. In contrast, the PC detected by use of the buffy coat analyzer were sometimes increased. Useful information can be obtained by measuring PC in blood with platelet clumps; values obtained by use of impedance can be considered minimums, and values obtained by use of buffy coat analysis may be either minimum values or reasonable estimates of PC. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;219:1552–1556)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the prevalence of ventricular arrhythmias in clinically normal adult Boxers.

Design—Prospective cross-sectional study.

Animals—301 Boxers (181 females and 120 males) > 1 year old with echocardiographically normal systolic function and no history of syncope or congestive heart failure.

Procedures—Physical examination, which included echocardiography, was performed on all dogs. A 24-hour ambulatory ECG was performed on each dog, and results were evaluated to assess ventricular arrhythmias. Statistical evaluation was performed to determine correlations between the total number of ventricular premature complexes (VPCs)/24 h, grade of ventricular arrhythmia, and age of the dogs.

Results—Age of dogs ranged from 1 to 16 years (median, 4 years). Number of VPCs/24 h in each dog ranged from 0 to 62,622 (median, 6 VPCs/24 h). Grade of arrhythmias ranged from 0 to 3 (median, 1). Age was correlated significantly with number of VPCs/24 h (r = 0.43) and with grade of arrhythmia (r = 0.37). Number of VPCs/24 h was significantly correlated with grade of arrhythmia (r = 0.82).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Clinically normal adult Boxers generally had < 91 VPCs/24 h and an arrhythmia grade < 2. Boxers with > 91 VPCs/24 h were uncommon and may have represented dogs with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy or other disease processes that could have resulted in the development of ventricular arrhythmias.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine aortic ejection velocity in healthy adult Boxers with soft ejection murmurs without overt structural evidence of left ventricular outflow tract obstruction and in healthy Boxers without cardiac murmurs.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—201 Boxers.

Procedure—Dogs were examined independently by 2 individuals for evidence of a cardiac murmur, and a murmur grade was assigned. Maximal instantaneous (peak) aortic ejection velocity was measured by means of continuous-wave Doppler echocardiography from a subcostal location. Forty-eight dogs were reexamined approximately 1 year later.

Results—A soft (grade 1, 2, or 3) left-basilar ejection murmur was detected in 113 (56%) dogs. Overall median aortic ejection velocity was 1.91 m/s (range, 1.31 to 4.02 m/s). Dogs with murmurs had significantly higher aortic ejection velocities than did those without murmurs (median, 2.11 and 1.72 m/s, respectively). Auscultation of a murmur was 87% sensitive and 66% specific for the identification of aortic ejection velocity > 2.0 m/s. An ejection murmur and aortic ejection velocity > 2.0 m/s were identified in 73 (36%) dogs. For most dogs, observed changes in murmur grade and aortic ejection velocity during a follow-up examination 1 year later were not clinically important.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that ejection murmurs were common among healthy adult Boxers and that Boxers with murmurs were likely to have high (> 2.0 m/s) aortic ejection velocities. The cause of the murmurs in these dogs is unknown. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;222:770–774)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To identify clinical, echocardiographic, and electrocardiographic abnormalities in Boxers with cardiomyopathy and echocardiographic evidence of left ventricular systolic dysfunction.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—48 mature Boxers.

Procedure—Medical records were reviewed for information on age; sex; physical examination findings; and results of electrocardiography, 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiography, thoracic radiography, and echocardiography.

Results—Mean age of the dogs was 6 years (range, 1 to 11 years). Twenty (42%) dogs had a systolic murmur, and 9 (19%) had ascites. Congestive heart failure was diagnosed in 24 (50%) dogs. Seventeen (35%) dogs had a history of syncope. Mean fractional shortening was 14.4% (range, 1% to 23%). Mean left ventricular systolic and diastolic diameters were 4.5 cm (range, 3 to 6.3 cm) and 5.3 cm (range, 3.9 to 7.4 cm), respectively. Twenty-eight (58%) dogs had a sinus rhythm with ventricular premature complexes (VPCs), and 20 had supraventricular arrhythmias (15 with atrial fibrillation and 5 with sinus rhythm and atrial premature complexes). Sixteen of the dogs with supraventricular arrhythmias also had occasional VPCs. Morphology of the VPCs seen on lead II ECGs was consistent with left bundle branch block in 25 dogs, right bundle branch block in 8, and both in 11.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that Boxers with cardiomyopathy and left ventricular dysfunction frequently have arrhythmias of supraventricular or ventricular origin. Whether ventricular dysfunction was preceded by electrical disturbances could not be determined from these data, and the natural history of myocardial disease in Boxers requires further study. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226:1102–1104)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association