Objective—To determine whether nephrolithiasis was associated with an increase in mortality rate or in the rate of disease progression in cats with naturally occurring stage 2 (mild) or 3 (moderate) chronic kidney disease.
Design—Retrospective case-control study.
Animals—14 cats with stage 2 (mild) or 3 (moderate) chronic kidney disease (7 with nephroliths and 7 without).
Procedures—All cats were evaluated every 3 months for up to 24 months. Possible associations between nephrolithiasis and clinicopathologic abnormalities, incidence of uremic crises, death secondary to renal causes, and death secondary to any cause were evaluated.
Results—There were no clinically important differences in biochemical, hematologic, or urinalysis variables between cats with and without nephroliths at baseline or after 12 and 24 months of monitoring. No associations were detected between nephrolithiasis and rate of disease progression, incidence of uremic crises, or death.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that in cats with mild or moderate chronic kidney disease, nephrolithiasis was not associated with an increase in mortality rate or in the rate of disease progression. Findings support recommendations that cats with severe kidney disease and nephrolithiasis be managed without surgery.
Objective—To investigate the mechanisms by which corticosteroid administration may predispose cats to congestive heart failure (CHF).
Animals—12 cats receiving methylprednisolone acetate (MPA) for the treatment of dermatologic disorders.
Procedure—The study was conducted as a repeated-measures design. Various baseline variables were measured, after which MPA (5 mg/kg, IM) was administered. The same variables were then measured at 3 to 6 days and at 16 to 24 days after MPA administration. Evaluations included physical examination, systolic blood pressure measurement, hematologic analysis, serum biochemical analysis, thoracic radiography, echocardiography, and total body water and plasma volume determination.
Results—MPA resulted in a substantial increase in serum glucose concentration at 3 to 6 days after administration. Concurrently, RBC count, Hct, and hemoglobin concentration as well as serum concentrations of the major extracellular electrolytes, sodium and chloride, decreased. Plasma volume increased by 13.4% (> 40% in 3 cats), whereas total body water and body weight slightly decreased. All variables returned to baseline by 16 to 24 days after MPA administration.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—These data suggest that MPA administration in cats causes plasma volume expansion as a result of an intra to extracellular fluid shift secondary to glucocorticoid-mediated extracellular hyperglycemia. This mechanism is analogous to the plasma volume expansion that accompanies uncontrolled diabetes mellitus in humans. Any cardiovascular disorders that impair the normal compensatory mechanisms for increased plasma volume may predispose cats to CHF following MPA administration.
Objective—To determine whether a renal diet modified in protein, phosphorus, sodium, and lipid content was superior to an adult maintenance diet in minimizing uremic episodes and mortality rate in cats with stage 2 or 3 chronic kidney disease (CKD).
Animals—45 client-owned cats with spontaneous stage 2 or 3 CKD.
Procedures—Cats were randomly assigned to an adult maintenance diet (n = 23 cats) or a renal diet (22) and evaluated trimonthly for up to 24 months. Efficacy of the renal diet, compared with the maintenance diet, in minimizing uremia, renal-related deaths, and all causes of death was evaluated.
Results—Serum urea nitrogen concentrations were significantly lower and blood bicarbonate concentrations were significantly higher in the renal diet group at baseline and during the 12- and 24-month intervals. Significant differences were not detected in body weight; Hct; urine protein-to-creatinine ratio; and serum creatinine, potassium, calcium, and parathyroid hormone concentrations. A significantly greater percentage of cats fed the maintenance diet had uremic episodes (26%), compared with cats fed the renal diet (0%). A significant reduction in renal-related deaths but not all causes of death was detected in cats fed the renal diet.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The renal diet evaluated in this study was superior to an adult maintenance diet in minimizing uremic episodes and renalrelated deaths in cats with spontaneous stage 2 or 3 CKD.