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Abstract

In collaboration with the American College of Veterinary Radiology

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

In collaboration with the American College of Veterinary Radiology

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To assess the time to completion, number of errors, and knot-holding capacity (KHC) for starting and ending square knots (SSKs and ESKs) of a continuous pattern and Aberdeen knots tied by veterinary students and to investigate student perceptions of knot security and knot-tying difficulty for the 3 knot types.

SAMPLE

16 second-year veterinary students.

PROCEDURES

Students created 3 (4-throw) SSKs, 3 (5-throw) ESKs, and 3 (3 + 1 configuration) Aberdeen knots with 2-0 polydioxanone on a custom test apparatus. Time to complete each knot, the number of errors in each knot, and student ratings of knot-tying difficulty and confidence in knot security were recorded. Each knot was tested to failure on a uniaxial tensiometer to determine KHC and mode of failure. Variables of interest were compared by repeated-measures ANOVA or the Friedman test with post hoc pairwise comparisons.

RESULTS

Mean knot completion time for Aberdeen knots was significantly less than mean completion time for SSKs or ESKs. Mean KHC was significantly lower for ESKs than for SSKs; KHC for Aberdeen knots was not compared with these values because of methodological differences. Median error rate was higher for ESKs than for other knot types. Mean difficulty rating for Aberdeen knots was lower than that for ESKs. Most tested knots failed by breakage at the knot.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Aberdeen knots appeared to be easy for veterinary students to learn and were completed more rapidly and with fewer errors than ESKs. Including this type of knot in surgical skills curriculum for novices may be beneficial.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
History

A 13-year-old 24-kg (52.8-lb) castrated male mixed-breed dog with a 3-month history of anorexia and vomiting was evaluated. On physical examination, the dog was slightly lethargic, yet alert and responsive, with 5% dehydration. The heart rate, respiratory rate, and capillary refill time were within reference ranges, and mucous membrane color was normal. The body condition score was 4 or 5 on a scale from 1 to 9. A systolic heart murmur (grade III/VI) over the left cardiac apex was detected. No abnormalities were detected on auscultation of the lungs. Hematologic and serum biochemical analyses revealed liver enzyme activities and

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

CASE DESCRIPTION A 6-year-old 2.08-kg (4.58-lb) neutered male Lionhead-mix pet rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) was examined because of sneezing and increased respiratory effort.

CLINICAL FINDINGS On the basis of the rabbit's radiographic findings, a diagnosis of diaphragmatic retroperitoneal perirenal fat and kidney herniation was made. Nine months later, physical examination revealed increased respiratory rate and effort and slightly decreased body weight. Thoracic radiography revealed decreased lung aeration and further craniomedial displacement of the right kidney, compared with the initial evaluation findings, suggesting progressive herniation of the retroperitoneal perirenal fat.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME During exploratory celiotomy, a tear in the right dorsal tendinous portion of the diaphragm was noted. The right kidney and perirenal fat were found to be displaced into the thorax. Diaphragmatic herniorrhaphy was performed after replacement of the right kidney and the perirenal fat in the retroperitoneal space. The rabbit recovered uneventfully from anesthesia and surgery. Clinical signs did not recur during the following 16 months.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE For rabbits with increased respiratory effort, diaphragmatic retroperitoneal perirenal fat and kidney herniation should be included as a differential diagnosis. As illustrated by the case described in this report, appropriate surgical management can provide a successful outcome for affected pet rabbits.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare the effects of morphine-lidocaine-ketamine (MLK) and fentanyl-lidocaine-ketamine (FLK) combinations administered as constant rate infusions (CRIs) during and after veterinary procedures on postprocedure rectal temperature in dogs.

ANIMALS

32 clinically normal client-owned dogs undergoing nonemergent procedures.

PROCEDURES

Dogs were randomly assigned to receive an MLK or FLK combination (16 dogs/group). During the procedure, each dog received 2% lidocaine hydrochloride (1 mg/kg/h; both groups), ketamine hydrochloride (0.6 mg/kg/h; both groups), and morphine (0.36 mg/kg/h; MLK group) or fentanyl (4 μg/kg/h; FLK group) via CRI for analgesia; esophageal temperature was maintained at 37° to 39°C. At extubation, each drug dose in each assigned combination was halved and administered (via CRI) for 12 additional hours for postprocedure analgesia. Rectal temperature and other data were recorded at baseline (prior to administration of premedicants), extubation (0 hours), and 0.5, 1.5, 3, 6, and 12 hours thereafter.

RESULTS

Mean postprocedure rectal temperature was significantly lower at each postextubation time point for the MLK group, compared with corresponding values for the FLK group. Compared with the baseline value, mean postprocedure rectal temperature was significantly lower at 0, 0.5, 1.5, and 3 hours for the FLK group and at all postprocedure time points for the MLK group. Hypothermia (rectal temperature < 37°C) was detected at ≥ 1 postprocedure time point more often in dogs in the MLK group (9/16) than in the FLK group (1/16).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Dogs that received an MLK combination for analgesia during and after a veterinary procedure developed hypothermia more commonly than did dogs that received an FLK combination under similar conditions.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine effects of cranberry extract on development of urinary tract infection (UTI) in dogs and on adherence of Escherichia coli to Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells.

ANIMALS 12 client-owned dogs (in vivo experiment) and 6 client-owned dogs (in vitro experiment).

PROCEDURES 12 dogs with a history of recurrent UTI received an antimicrobial (n = 6) or cranberry extract (6) orally for 6 months. Dogs were monitored for a UTI. For the in vitro experiment, cranberry extract was orally administered to 6 dogs for 60 days. Voided urine samples were collected from each dog before and 30 and 60 days after onset of extract administration. Urine was evaluated by use of a bacteriostasis assay. An antiadhesion assay and microscopic examination were used to determine inhibition of bacterial adherence to MDCK cells.

RESULTS None of the 12 dogs developed a UTI. The bacteriostasis assay revealed no zone of inhibition for any urine samples. Bacterial adhesion was significantly reduced after culture with urine samples obtained at 30 and 60 days, compared with results for urine samples obtained before extract administration. Microscopic examination revealed that bacterial adherence to MDCK cells was significantly reduced after culture with urine samples obtained at 30 and 60 days, compared with results after culture with urine samples obtained before extract administration.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Oral administration of cranberry extract prevented development of a UTI and prevented E coli adherence to MDCK cells, which may indicate it has benefit for preventing UTIs in dogs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To compare tensile strength and time to completion of body wall closure among 3 suture patterns.

SAMPLE Eighteen 5 × 5-cm leather specimens and sixty-eight 5 × 5-cm full-thickness tissue specimens from the ventral portion of the abdominal body wall of 17 canine cadavers.

PROCEDURES During experiment 1 of a 2-experiment study, each leather specimen was cut in half and sutured with a simple interrupted or simple continuous pattern or continuous pattern with intermittent Aberdeen knots (intermittent Aberdeen pattern). During experiment 2, 4 tissue specimens were obtained from each cadaver; the linea alba of 3 specimens was incised and closed with 1 of the 3 suture patterns evaluated in experiment 1, and the fourth specimen was left intact as a control. All leather and tissue specimens underwent mechanical testing. Time to completion, mode of failure, and maximum force at failure (Fmax) were compared among the suture patterns.

RESULTS In experiment 1, the mean Fmax for the simple continuous and intermittent Aberdeen patterns was significantly greater than that for the simple interrupted pattern. In experiment 2, the mean Fmax for specimens obtained cranial to the umbilicus was greater than that for specimens obtained caudal to the umbilicus, and the mean time to completion for both continuous suture patterns was significantly less than that for the simple interrupted pattern. Most (34/51) sutured tissue specimens failed because the suture cut through the tissue at the suture-tissue interface.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that the intermittent Aberdeen pattern may be an alternative for body wall closure in dogs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
History

A 13-year-old 20-kg (44-lb) neutered male mixed-breed dog was evaluated because of vomiting and anorexia of 5 days’ duration. Physical examination revealed that the dog was approximately 10% dehydrated. A firm, palpable mass was detected in the right cranial aspect of the abdomen. The dog had a body temperature of 40.2°C (104.4°F), respiratory rate of 80 breaths/min, and heart rate of 160 beats/min. A CBC revealed leukocytosis (38,300 leukocytes/μL; reference range, 5,000 to 17,000 leukocytes/μL), characterized by neutrophilia (31,023 neutrophils/μL; reference range, 3,000 to 11,400 neutrophils/μL) with a regenerative left shift (766 band neutrophils/μL; reference range, 0 to 300

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
History

A 4-month-old 5-kg (11-lb) sexually intact female mixed-breed dog was examined for a 5-day history of anorexia combined with weight-bearing lameness of the left forelimb and a 3-day history of fever (40.6°C [105.1°F]; reference range, 37.8° to 39.3°C [100.0° to 102.8°F]). According to the owner, the dog had no history of trauma. During physical examination, the dog was lethargic and normothermic (38.6°C [101.5°F]). Both distal antebrachial areas had mild soft tissue swelling that was warm to the touch and elicited signs of pain on palpation. Radiographs of the distal aspects of both antebrachia were obtained (Figure 1).

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association