Case Description—A 1-year-old spayed female mixed-breed dog was evaluated because of urinary incontinence, polyuria, polydipsia, and minimally concentrated urine.
Clinical Findings—Markedly high circulating alanine transaminase activity, mildly high circulating alkaline phosphatase activity, and low urine specific gravity were detected for the dog. Results of ultrasonographic examination of the abdomen and cytologic examination of liver samples were unremarkable. Carprofen was detected in serum and plasma samples obtained from the dog. Exposure to carprofen was attributed to ingestion of feces of another dog in the household that was receiving the drug daily.
Treatment and Outcome—Access to feces of other dogs in the household was prevented; no other treatment was initiated. Urinary incontinence, polyuria, and polydipsia resolved, and urine specific gravity increased within 7 days following discontinuation of consumption of feces. Alanine transaminase activity was substantially lower than the value determined during the initial examination, and alkaline phosphatase activity was within the reference range 5 weeks after discontinuation of consumption of feces by the dog.
Clinical Relevance—Findings for the dog of this report suggested that carprofen toxicosis can be caused by consumption of feces of another dog receiving the drug. This cause of adverse effects should be a differential diagnosis for dogs with clinical signs and clinicopathologic abnormalities consistent with carprofen toxicosis.
Objective—To evaluate perinuclear anti-neutrophilic cytoplasmic autoantibody (pANCA) status in Soft Coated Wheaten Terriers (SCWTs) and SCWT-Beagle crossbred dogs and to correlate pANCA status of dogs with clinicopathologic variables of protein-losing enteropathy (PLE), protein-losing nephropathy (PLN), or both.
Animals—13 SCWTs and 8 SCWT-Beagle crossbred dogs in a research colony and a control group comprising 7 dogs with X-linked hereditary nephropathy and 12 healthy SCWTs > 9 years old.
Procedures—Samples were obtained from dogs in the research colony every 6 months. At each sample-collection time point, serum concentrations of albumin, globulin, creatinine, and urea nitrogen; fecal concentration of α-proteinase inhibitor; and urinary protein-to-creatinine ratios were determined and correlated with pANCA status.
Results—20 of 21 dogs in the research colony had positive results for pANCAs at a minimum of 2 time points, and 18 of 21 dogs had definitive evidence of disease. None of the control dogs had positive results for pANCAs. A positive result for pANCAs was significantly associated with hypoalbuminemia, and pANCAs preceded the onset of hypoalbuminemia on an average of 2.4 years. Sensitivity and specificity for use of pANCAs to predict development of PLE or PLN were 0.95 (95% confidence interval, 0.72 to 1.00) and 0.8 (95% confidence interval, 0.51 to 0.95), respectively.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Most dogs in this study affected with PLE, PLN, or both had positive results for pANCAs before clinicopathologic evidence of disease was detected. Thus, pANCAs may be useful as an early noninvasive test of disease in SCWTs.
To investigate the use of microwave ablation (MWA) with cooling urethral perfusion and with no perfusion (MWA-UP and MWA-NP, respectively) for prostate gland ablation in canine cadavers.
Cadavers of 18 sexually intact male dogs.
After technique refinement in 2 cadavers, laparotomy with ultrasound-guided MWA-UP (n = 8) or MWA-NP (8) of the prostate gland was performed in 16 cadavers. Normograde cystourethroscopy was performed before and after treatment; recorded images were reviewed in a blinded manner for scoring of urethral mucosal discoloration and loss of integrity. Difficulty with cystoscope insertion was recorded if present. Excised prostate glands were fixed for serial sectioning, gross measurements, and calculation of percentage ablation. Percentages of prostate tissue necrosis from MWA, denuded urethral mucosa, and depth of epithelial surface loss in an adjacent section of the colon were estimated histologically. Variables of interest were statistically analyzed.
Difficulty with cystoscope insertion after treatment was significantly more common and scores for urethral mucosal discoloration and loss of integrity were significantly higher (indicating more severe lesions) for the MWA-NP group than for the MWA-UP group. The histologically assessed percentage of denuded urethral mucosa was also greater for the MWA-NP group. Overall median percentage prostate gland ablation was 73%; this result was not associated with prostate gland volume or chronological order of treatment.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
MWA-UP induced subtotal thermal necrosis of prostate glands in canine cadavers while limiting urethral mucosal injury. Further study is required to optimize the technique and evaluate its safety and efficacy in vivo as a future curative-intent treatment for prostatic tumors in dogs.
Objective—To evaluate the use of dipstick, sulfosalicylic acid (SSA), and urine protein-tocreatinine ratio (UP:C) methods for use in detection of canine and feline albuminuria.
Sample Population—599 canine and 347 feline urine samples.
Procedures—Urine was analyzed by use of dipstick, SSA, and UP:C methods; results were compared with those for a species-specific ELISA to determine sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value, and positive and negative likelihood ratios.
Results—Positive results for dipstick and SSA tests (trace reaction or greater) in canine urine had moderate specificity (dipstick, 81.2%; SSA, 73.3%) and poor PPV (dipstick, 34.0%; SSA, 41.8%). Values improved when stronger positive results (≥ 2+) for the dipstick and SSA tests were compared with ELISA results (specificity, 98.9% and 99.0% for the urine dipstick and SSA tests, respectively; PPV, 90.7% and 90.2% for the dipstick and SSA tests, respectively). Data obtained for cats revealed poor specificity (dipstick, 11.0%; SSA, 25.4%) and PPV (dipstick, 55.6%; SSA, 46.9%). Values improved slightly when stronger positive test results (≥ 2+) were used (specificity, 80.0% and 94.2% for the dipstick and SSA tests, respectively; PPV, 63.5% and 65.2% for the dipstick and SSA tests, respectively). The UP:C had high specificity for albuminuria in dogs and cats (99.7% and 99.2%, respectively) but low sensitivity (28.7% and 2.0%, respectively).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Caution should be used when interpreting a positive test result of a dipstick or SSA test for canine or feline albuminuria.
Objective—To evaluate intestinal permeability and
gluten sensitivity in a family of Soft-Coated Wheaten
Terriers (SCWT) affected with protein-losing
enteropathy (PLE), protein-losing nephropathy (PLN),
Animals—6 affected adult dogs.
Procedure—Intestinal biopsy specimens, urine protein-
to-creatinine ratio, serum concentrations of albumin
and globulin, and concentration of α1-protease
inhibitor in feces were evaluated before, during, and
13 weeks after daily administration of 10 g of gluten
for 7 weeks. Eosinophils and lymphocytes-plasmacytes
were enumerated in intestinal biopsy specimens.
Intestinal permeability was evaluated before
and during the sixth week of gluten administration via
cellobiose-mannitol and chromium-EDTA absorption
Results—Serum globulin concentration decreased significantly
after prolonged administration of gluten.
Although not significant, there was an increase in lymphocytes-
plasmacytes and a decrease in eosinophils in
intestinal biopsy specimens. Furthermore, these counts
were greater than those reported for clinically normal
dogs. Gluten administration did not increase intestinal
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Daily administration
of gluten was associated with a significant
decrease in serum globulin concentration in SCWT
affected with PLE or PLN, but other variables
remained unchanged. Although enhanced wheatgluten
sensitivity may be one factor involved in the
pathogenesis of PLE or PLN in SCWT, this syndrome
does not appear to be the result of a specific sensitivity
to gluten. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:518–524)
Objective—To determine clinical, clinicopathologic,
radiographic, and ultrasonographic abnormalities in
cats with ureteral calculi.
Animals—163 client-owned cats.
Procedure—Medical records were reviewed, and
information on signalment, history, clinical signs, and
results of clinicopathologic testing and diagnostic
imaging was obtained.
Results—The number of cats in which ureterolithiasis
was diagnosed each year increased progressively during
the study period. Clinical signs tended to be nonspecific
and included inappetence, vomiting, lethargy,
and weight loss. A combination of survey radiography
and abdominal ultrasonography revealed ureteral calculi
in 66 of 73 (90%) cats in which the diagnosis was
confirmed at surgery or necropsy. Ultrasonography
revealed that ureteral calculi were causing ureteral
obstruction in 143 of 155 (92%) cats. One hundred
thirty-four of 162 (83%) cats had azotemia, 84 of 156
(54%) had hyperphosphatemia, and 22 of 152 (14%)
had hypercalcemia. Urinary tract infection was documented
in 10 of 119 (8%). Fifty-eight of 76 (76%) cats
with unilateral ureterolithiasis had azotemia and 33
(43%) had hyperphosphatemia, indicating impairment
of renal function in the contralateral kidney or prerenal
azotemia. Ultrasonographic imaging of the contralateral
kidney in cats with unilateral ureteral calculi suggested
that preexisting renal parenchymal disease
was common in cats with ureterolithiasis. Ninety-one
of 93 (98%) ureteral calculi contained calcium oxalate.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that abdominal imaging should be performed in
all cats with chronic nonspecific signs or with acute
or chronic renal failure to rule out ureterolithiasis.
Preexisting renal disease may be common in cats
with ureteral calculi. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226:
Objective—To determine outcome of medical and
surgical treatment in cats with ureteral calculi.
Procedure—Medical records were reviewed.
Owners and referring veterinarians were contacted
for follow-up information.
Results—All cats were initially treated medically before
a decision was made to perform surgery. Medical treatment
included parenteral administration of fluids and
diuretics to promote urine production and passage of
the ureteral calculus and supportive treatment for renal
failure. Ureteral calculi in the proximal portion of the
ureter were typically removed by ureterotomy, whereas
ureteral calculi in the distal portion of the ureter were
more likely to be removed by partial ureterectomy and
ureteroneocystostomy. Ureterotomy could be performed
without placement of a nephrostomy tube for
postoperative urine diversion. Postoperative complication
rate and perioperative mortality rate were 31% and
18%, respectively. The most common postoperative
complications were urine leakage and persistent ureteral
obstruction after surgery. Chronic renal failure was
common at the time of diagnosis and continued after
treatment, with serum creatinine concentration remaining
greater than the upper reference limit in approximately
half the cats. Twelve-month survival rates after
medical and surgical treatment were 66% and 91%,
respectively, with a number of cats dying of causes
related to urinary tract disorders, including ureteral calculus
recurrence and worsening of chronic renal failure.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that medical and surgical management of ureteral
calculi in cats are associated with high morbidity
and mortality rates. Treatment can stabilize renal function,
although many surviving cats will continue to
have impaired renal function. (J Am Vet Med Assoc