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Abstract

Case Description—A 1-year-old spayed female mixed-breed dog was evaluated because of urinary incontinence, polyuria, polydipsia, and minimally concentrated urine.

Clinical Findings—Markedly high circulating alanine transaminase activity, mildly high circulating alkaline phosphatase activity, and low urine specific gravity were detected for the dog. Results of ultrasonographic examination of the abdomen and cytologic examination of liver samples were unremarkable. Carprofen was detected in serum and plasma samples obtained from the dog. Exposure to carprofen was attributed to ingestion of feces of another dog in the household that was receiving the drug daily.

Treatment and Outcome—Access to feces of other dogs in the household was prevented; no other treatment was initiated. Urinary incontinence, polyuria, and polydipsia resolved, and urine specific gravity increased within 7 days following discontinuation of consumption of feces. Alanine transaminase activity was substantially lower than the value determined during the initial examination, and alkaline phosphatase activity was within the reference range 5 weeks after discontinuation of consumption of feces by the dog.

Clinical Relevance—Findings for the dog of this report suggested that carprofen toxicosis can be caused by consumption of feces of another dog receiving the drug. This cause of adverse effects should be a differential diagnosis for dogs with clinical signs and clinicopathologic abnormalities consistent with carprofen toxicosis.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To investigate the use of microwave ablation (MWA) with cooling urethral perfusion and with no perfusion (MWA-UP and MWA-NP, respectively) for prostate gland ablation in canine cadavers.

ANIMALS

Cadavers of 18 sexually intact male dogs.

PROCEDURES

After technique refinement in 2 cadavers, laparotomy with ultrasound-guided MWA-UP (n = 8) or MWA-NP (8) of the prostate gland was performed in 16 cadavers. Normograde cystourethroscopy was performed before and after treatment; recorded images were reviewed in a blinded manner for scoring of urethral mucosal discoloration and loss of integrity. Difficulty with cystoscope insertion was recorded if present. Excised prostate glands were fixed for serial sectioning, gross measurements, and calculation of percentage ablation. Percentages of prostate tissue necrosis from MWA, denuded urethral mucosa, and depth of epithelial surface loss in an adjacent section of the colon were estimated histologically. Variables of interest were statistically analyzed.

RESULTS

Difficulty with cystoscope insertion after treatment was significantly more common and scores for urethral mucosal discoloration and loss of integrity were significantly higher (indicating more severe lesions) for the MWA-NP group than for the MWA-UP group. The histologically assessed percentage of denuded urethral mucosa was also greater for the MWA-NP group. Overall median percentage prostate gland ablation was 73%; this result was not associated with prostate gland volume or chronological order of treatment.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

MWA-UP induced subtotal thermal necrosis of prostate glands in canine cadavers while limiting urethral mucosal injury. Further study is required to optimize the technique and evaluate its safety and efficacy in vivo as a future curative-intent treatment for prostatic tumors in dogs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the use of dipstick, sulfosalicylic acid (SSA), and urine protein-tocreatinine ratio (UP:C) methods for use in detection of canine and feline albuminuria.

Design—Evaluation study.

Sample Population—599 canine and 347 feline urine samples.

Procedures—Urine was analyzed by use of dipstick, SSA, and UP:C methods; results were compared with those for a species-specific ELISA to determine sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value, and positive and negative likelihood ratios.

Results—Positive results for dipstick and SSA tests (trace reaction or greater) in canine urine had moderate specificity (dipstick, 81.2%; SSA, 73.3%) and poor PPV (dipstick, 34.0%; SSA, 41.8%). Values improved when stronger positive results (≥ 2+) for the dipstick and SSA tests were compared with ELISA results (specificity, 98.9% and 99.0% for the urine dipstick and SSA tests, respectively; PPV, 90.7% and 90.2% for the dipstick and SSA tests, respectively). Data obtained for cats revealed poor specificity (dipstick, 11.0%; SSA, 25.4%) and PPV (dipstick, 55.6%; SSA, 46.9%). Values improved slightly when stronger positive test results (≥ 2+) were used (specificity, 80.0% and 94.2% for the dipstick and SSA tests, respectively; PPV, 63.5% and 65.2% for the dipstick and SSA tests, respectively). The UP:C had high specificity for albuminuria in dogs and cats (99.7% and 99.2%, respectively) but low sensitivity (28.7% and 2.0%, respectively).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Caution should be used when interpreting a positive test result of a dipstick or SSA test for canine or feline albuminuria.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate intestinal permeability and gluten sensitivity in a family of Soft-Coated Wheaten Terriers (SCWT) affected with protein-losing enteropathy (PLE), protein-losing nephropathy (PLN), or both.

Animals—6 affected adult dogs.

Procedure—Intestinal biopsy specimens, urine protein- to-creatinine ratio, serum concentrations of albumin and globulin, and concentration of α1-protease inhibitor in feces were evaluated before, during, and 13 weeks after daily administration of 10 g of gluten for 7 weeks. Eosinophils and lymphocytes-plasmacytes were enumerated in intestinal biopsy specimens. Intestinal permeability was evaluated before and during the sixth week of gluten administration via cellobiose-mannitol and chromium-EDTA absorption tests.

Results—Serum globulin concentration decreased significantly after prolonged administration of gluten. Although not significant, there was an increase in lymphocytes- plasmacytes and a decrease in eosinophils in intestinal biopsy specimens. Furthermore, these counts were greater than those reported for clinically normal dogs. Gluten administration did not increase intestinal permeability.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Daily administration of gluten was associated with a significant decrease in serum globulin concentration in SCWT affected with PLE or PLN, but other variables remained unchanged. Although enhanced wheatgluten sensitivity may be one factor involved in the pathogenesis of PLE or PLN in SCWT, this syndrome does not appear to be the result of a specific sensitivity to gluten. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:518–524)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate perinuclear anti-neutrophilic cytoplasmic autoantibody (pANCA) status in Soft Coated Wheaten Terriers (SCWTs) and SCWT-Beagle crossbred dogs and to correlate pANCA status of dogs with clinicopathologic variables of protein-losing enteropathy (PLE), protein-losing nephropathy (PLN), or both.

Animals—13 SCWTs and 8 SCWT-Beagle crossbred dogs in a research colony and a control group comprising 7 dogs with X-linked hereditary nephropathy and 12 healthy SCWTs > 9 years old.

Procedures—Samples were obtained from dogs in the research colony every 6 months. At each sample-collection time point, serum concentrations of albumin, globulin, creatinine, and urea nitrogen; fecal concentration of α-proteinase inhibitor; and urinary protein-to-creatinine ratios were determined and correlated with pANCA status.

Results—20 of 21 dogs in the research colony had positive results for pANCAs at a minimum of 2 time points, and 18 of 21 dogs had definitive evidence of disease. None of the control dogs had positive results for pANCAs. A positive result for pANCAs was significantly associated with hypoalbuminemia, and pANCAs preceded the onset of hypoalbuminemia on an average of 2.4 years. Sensitivity and specificity for use of pANCAs to predict development of PLE or PLN were 0.95 (95% confidence interval, 0.72 to 1.00) and 0.8 (95% confidence interval, 0.51 to 0.95), respectively.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Most dogs in this study affected with PLE, PLN, or both had positive results for pANCAs before clinicopathologic evidence of disease was detected. Thus, pANCAs may be useful as an early noninvasive test of disease in SCWTs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine outcome of medical and surgical treatment in cats with ureteral calculi.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—153 cats.

Procedure—Medical records were reviewed. Owners and referring veterinarians were contacted for follow-up information.

Results—All cats were initially treated medically before a decision was made to perform surgery. Medical treatment included parenteral administration of fluids and diuretics to promote urine production and passage of the ureteral calculus and supportive treatment for renal failure. Ureteral calculi in the proximal portion of the ureter were typically removed by ureterotomy, whereas ureteral calculi in the distal portion of the ureter were more likely to be removed by partial ureterectomy and ureteroneocystostomy. Ureterotomy could be performed without placement of a nephrostomy tube for postoperative urine diversion. Postoperative complication rate and perioperative mortality rate were 31% and 18%, respectively. The most common postoperative complications were urine leakage and persistent ureteral obstruction after surgery. Chronic renal failure was common at the time of diagnosis and continued after treatment, with serum creatinine concentration remaining greater than the upper reference limit in approximately half the cats. Twelve-month survival rates after medical and surgical treatment were 66% and 91%, respectively, with a number of cats dying of causes related to urinary tract disorders, including ureteral calculus recurrence and worsening of chronic renal failure.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that medical and surgical management of ureteral calculi in cats are associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. Treatment can stabilize renal function, although many surviving cats will continue to have impaired renal function. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226:937–944)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine clinical, clinicopathologic, radiographic, and ultrasonographic abnormalities in cats with ureteral calculi.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—163 client-owned cats.

Procedure—Medical records were reviewed, and information on signalment, history, clinical signs, and results of clinicopathologic testing and diagnostic imaging was obtained.

Results—The number of cats in which ureterolithiasis was diagnosed each year increased progressively during the study period. Clinical signs tended to be nonspecific and included inappetence, vomiting, lethargy, and weight loss. A combination of survey radiography and abdominal ultrasonography revealed ureteral calculi in 66 of 73 (90%) cats in which the diagnosis was confirmed at surgery or necropsy. Ultrasonography revealed that ureteral calculi were causing ureteral obstruction in 143 of 155 (92%) cats. One hundred thirty-four of 162 (83%) cats had azotemia, 84 of 156 (54%) had hyperphosphatemia, and 22 of 152 (14%) had hypercalcemia. Urinary tract infection was documented in 10 of 119 (8%). Fifty-eight of 76 (76%) cats with unilateral ureterolithiasis had azotemia and 33 (43%) had hyperphosphatemia, indicating impairment of renal function in the contralateral kidney or prerenal azotemia. Ultrasonographic imaging of the contralateral kidney in cats with unilateral ureteral calculi suggested that preexisting renal parenchymal disease was common in cats with ureterolithiasis. Ninety-one of 93 (98%) ureteral calculi contained calcium oxalate.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that abdominal imaging should be performed in all cats with chronic nonspecific signs or with acute or chronic renal failure to rule out ureterolithiasis. Preexisting renal disease may be common in cats with ureteral calculi. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226: 932–936)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association