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History

A 2-week-old male alpaca cria was evaluated at the University of Tennessee Veterinary Medical Center because of ataxia, collapse, and seizures of 24 hours' duration. On arrival, the cria was obtunded and laterally recumbent. The last observed urination occurred 24 hours prior to evaluation. The cria had a history of poor growth, with 7.2% weight loss in the preceding 2 days. This animal was part of a herd containing > 75 alpacas; as part of neonatal management, colostrum of adequate quality and quantity and a commercial vitamin supplement were reportedly given to each cria soon after birth.

Clinical and
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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
History

A 3.5-year-old 553-kg (1,217-lb) Holstein cow that had a 1-week history of mastitis and a 3-day history of progressive, unilateral neurologic signs was euthanized and submitted for necropsy to the University of Tennessee College of Veterinary Medicine.

Antemortem Clinical and Postmortem Gross Findings

Physical examination, performed by the referring veterinarian, revealed partial facial paralysis on the left side and left ear droop. Microscopic examination of a CSF sample (collected from the lumbosacral region) revealed mild, mononuclear pleocytosis (total nucleated cell count, 8 cells/µL; reference interval, 0.85 to 3.52 cells/µL); total protein concentration was normal (32 mL/dL; reference interval, 20

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
History

A 4-week-old 1.0-kg (2.2-lb) female red panda (Ailurus fulgens) cub that had died at a zoo was submitted to the University of Tennessee College of Veterinary Medicine for necropsy. Information regarding clinical findings and treatment was provided by the submitting veterinarian. Prior to death, zoo veterinarians had removed the red panda cub from the mother because it developed an ulcerated tail lesion. The tail lesion was clinically suggestive of ringworm infection. The panda cub was hospitalized, and treatment with clotrimazole, itraconazole, and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid was initiated. Samples of skin and hair were collected for bacterial and fungal

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

In December 2005, 2 dogs died of acute hepatic failure after consuming a commercially available food formulated for dogs. Food toxicosis was suspected. The product manufacturer a was notified by the attending veterinarian, and necropsy of the dogs was performed by a university pathology service. Product date codes for the product consumed by the dogs were not provided to the manufacturer, and the FDA was not notified of potential product contamination. Screening of raw ingredients and finished product to detect aflatoxin by the manufacturer yielded negative results.

However, additional dogs in the eastern United States developed clinical signs of

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
History

A 12-year-old 62-kg Finn-Shetland crossbreed ewe was euthanized (captive bolt followed by exsanguination from the carotid artery) because of the recent progression of a mammary mass. The ewe was from a small farm flock from which fleeces were harvested yearly. The ewe had not been bred or had any offspring for the past 5 years but was deemed by the owner to have been healthy, with a good appetite, activity level, and behavior. The flock was maintained on pasture (approx 2 acres with paster rotation) year-round, with the diet supplemented by corn and hay during the colder months of

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate completeness of excision and clinical outcome in dogs with cutaneous mast cell tumors (MCTs) excised with a lateral margin of 2 cm and a deep margin of 1 fascial plane.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—16 client-owned dogs with 1 or more cutaneous MCTs.

Procedure—Excision of MCTs was performed with a 2-cm lateral margin and a deep margin of 1 fascial plane. Histologic tumor grading was performed; surgical margins were categorized as complete or incomplete. Follow-up information was obtained via repeat examination of the dogs by veterinarians or client-completed questionnaires.

Results—4 grade I and 19 grade II cutaneous MCTs were evaluated. Overall, 21 (91%) MCTs were completely excised; 2 grade II tumors had foci of mast cells at the 2-cm margin. Two dogs received adjunctive treatments following surgery. Follow-up information was available for all dogs (median follow-up period, 379 days; range, 51 to 538 days); no local recurrence was detected during this time. De novo MCTs were detected in 3 of 16 dogs at 37, 54, and 154 days after surgery. Via Kaplan-Meier analysis, median survival time and disease-free interval were both > 538 days (medians not yet reached). No prognostic variables were identified.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Excision with a 2-cm lateral margin and a deep margin of 1 fascial plane may result in satisfactory excision of grades I and II MCTs in dogs, with recurrence rates similar to those reported previously. Use of these margins may minimize complications associated with larger local tumor resection.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether neoplastic mast cells extended into tissue 1, 2, or 3 cm laterally or deeper than 1 fascial plane from the visible edge of cutaneous mast cell tumors (MCTs) in dogs.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—21 client-owned dogs with ≥ 1 cutaneous MCT.

Procedures—After preparation for surgery, each dog's skin was marked 1, 2, and 3 cm from the tumor edge at 0°, 90°, 180°, and 270°. At each 3-cm mark, deep fascia was exposed and sutured to the skin; the tumor was excised in routine fashion and fixed in formalin. Tumors were graded; margins were examined histologically for neoplastic mast cells.

Results—23 cutaneous MCTs in 21 dogs were included in this study. Fifteen (65%) tumors were located on the trunk, 5 (22%) on the hind limbs, and 3 (13%) on the head and neck. There were 3 (13%) grade-I and 20 (87%) grade-II tumors. All grade-I tumors were completely excised at all margins. Seventy-five percent of the grade-II tumors were completely excised at the 1- cm margin, and 100% were completely excised at the 2-cm margin. Two grade-II MCTs located on the hind limbs of dogs were excised with a complete but close (within 1 mm) deep margin.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that a 2-cm lateral margin and a deep margin of 1 fascial plane appear to be adequate for complete excision of grade-I and -II MCTs in dogs. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;224:236–240)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the tissue-restricted expression pattern of tyrosinase mRNA in canine and equine melanocytic tumors and relative tyrosinase and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) I mRNA expression in variants of melanocytic tumors.

Sample—39 canine and 8 equine tumor samples and 10 canine and 6 equine normal tissue samples.

Procedures—RNA was isolated from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues. Real-time PCR assays were designed to amplify canine and equine tyrosinase, S18 ribosomal RNA, and major histocompatibility complex I transcripts. Relative expression was determined by use of S18 as a reference and comparison with pigmented and nonpigmented normal tissues.

Results—High tyrosinase expression was found in all melanocytic tumors, compared with normal tissues, and expression had no correlation with presence or absence of tumor pigmentation. No significant difference in tyrosinase expression was found among histologic variants of melanocytic tumors. No correlation was found between MHC I and tyrosinase expression or tissue histologic classification.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In the present study, the methods used were highly sensitive and specific for detection of tyrosinase expression in equine and canine tumors, and overexpression of this transcript in melanomas was detected. This suggested that a DNA vaccine developed for use in dogs with melanoma that targets tyrosinase may be considered for use in other affected species, such as horses.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research