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  • Author or Editor: Sheldon A. Steinberg x
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Abstract

Objective—To determine whether intrathecal (IT) or IV administration of oxytocin will diminish amplitude of the reflex-evoked muscle action potential (REMP) in the digastricus muscle during electrical stimulation of the tooth pulp in anesthetized dogs, thus suggesting an analgesic effect for oxytocin.

Animals—6 male Beagles that were 2 to 6 years old.

Procedure—Dogs were used in a crossover design with at least a 5-day washout period between treatments. Each dog received morphine, saline (0.9% NaCl) solution, and oxytocin by both the IT and IV routes of administration. Noninvasive dental dolorimetry was used to assess changes in pain threshold following administration of treatments. Effectiveness of analgesia was determined on the basis of change in REMP amplitude in the digastricus muscle.

Results—Morphine administered IV significantly inhibited REMP amplitude, compared with IV administration of saline solution or oxytocin. There was not a significant change in REMP amplitude between saline solution and oxytocin administered IV. Intrathecal administration of morphine significantly inhibited REMP amplitude, compared with IT administration of saline solution or oxytocin. Intrathecal administration of oxytocin significantly increased REMP amplitude, compared with IT administration of saline solution or morphine.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Although IV administration of oxytocin did not have an effect on REMP amplitude, compared with IV administration of saline solution, IT administration of oxytocin had the opposite effect of morphine and increased REMP amplitude of the digastricus muscle. These data do not support the use of oxytocin as an analgesic agent in dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1354–1358)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether changes in amplitude of the reflex-evoked muscle action potential (REMP) elicited by noninvasive dental dolorimetry (electrical stimulation of the tooth pulp) in anesthetized dogs may be used to objectively evaluate the effectiveness of IV and intrathecal (IT) administration of morphine.

Animals—6 male Beagles that were 2 to 6 years old.

Procedure—Dogs were used in a crossover design with at least a 5-day washout period between treatments. Each dog received morphine, saline (0.9% NaCl) solution, and oxytocin via the IV and IT routes of administration; however, only results for morphine and saline treatments were reported here. Dogs were anesthetized and prepared for noninvasive dental dolorimetry. After IV or IT administration, electrical stimulation was applied to a tooth, and REMPs of the digastricus muscle were recorded at 5-minute intervals for 60 minutes. To determine differences in REMP amplitude between treatments, a linear regression line was fitted for each dog-treatment combination.

Results—The IV administration of morphine significantly inhibited REMP amplitude, compared with IV administration of saline solution. Intrathecal administration of morphine significantly inhibited REMP amplitude, compared with IT administration of saline solution.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Noninvasive dental dolorimetry in anesthetized dogs has promise as a technique for use in evaluating the analgesic potential of drugs administered IV and IT through evaluation of their effect on REMP amplitude recorded for the digastricus muscle. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63: 1349–1353)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine prevalence of seizures after use of iohexol for myelography and identify associated risk factors in dogs.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—182 dogs that received iohexol for myelography in 1998.

Procedure—Medical records were reviewed for age, breed, sex, weight, dose and total volume of iohexol, injection site, number of injections, lesion type and location, total duration of anesthesia, duration from time of iohexol injection to recovery, presence and number of seizures, and whether surgery followed the myelogram.

Results—39 (21.4%) dogs had at least 1 generalized seizure during or after myelography. Injection site was strongly associated with prevalence of seizures, and risk of seizure was significantly higher after cerebellomedullary injections, compared with lumbar injections. Mean total volume of iohexol administered to dogs that had seizures was significantly higher, compared with that administered to dogs that did not have seizures, although dosage did not differ between groups. Weight was significantly correlated with risk of seizure, and dogs that weighed > 20 kg (44 lb) had higher prevalence of seizures than dogs that weighed < 20 kg.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—It is preferential to administer iohexol via the L5-6 intervertebral space to minimize the risk of seizures. Higher prevalence of seizures in large dogs, compared with smaller dogs, may be caused by administration of larger total volumes of contrast agent per volume of CSF. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:1499–1502)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether neurologic examination findings, results of CSF analysis, or age at the onset of seizures could be used to predict whether results of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) would be normal or abnormal in dogs with seizures.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—115 dogs.

Procedure—Information on results of neurologic examination, results of CSF analysis, age at the onset of seizures, and results of MRI was obtained from the medical records.

Results—Results of MRI were abnormal in 61 dogs and normal in 54. Sensitivity and specificity of neurologic examination alone were 77 (47/61) and 91% (49/54), respectively. Sensitivity and specificity of CSF analysis alone were 79 (48/61) and 69% (37/54), respectively. Results of MRI were abnormal for 12 of 28 (43%) dogs with abnormal CSF analysis results and normal neurologic examination results but for only 2 of 35 (6%) dogs with normal CSF analysis and normal neurologic examination results. Similarly, results of MRI were abnormal for 36 of 37 (97%) dogs with abnormal CSF analysis and abnormal neurologic examination results but for only 11 of 15 (73%) dogs with normal CSF analysis results and abnormal neurologic examination results. Age at the onset of seizures (< 6 vs ≥ 6 years old) was not significantly associated with results of MRI.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that neurologic examination findings and results of CSF analysis are useful in predicting whether results of MRI will be abnormal in dogs examined because of seizures, but age at the onset of seizures is not. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:781–784)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association