Objective—To compare serum total protein (sTP) and serum IgG (sIgG) concentrations In neonatal calves administered colostrum or a bovine serum-based colostrum replacement (CR) product followed by a bovine serum-based colostrum supplement (CS) product.
Design—Randomized controlled clinical trial.
Animals—18 Jersey and 269 Holstein neonatal heifer calves.
Procedures—141 calves were given 4 L of colostrum in 1 or 2 feedings (first or only feeding was provided ≤ 2 hours after birth; when applicable, a second feeding was provided between 2 and 12 hours after birth). Other calves (n = 146) were fed 2 L of a CR product ≤ 2 hours after birth and then 2 L of a CS product between 2 and 12 hours after birth. Concentrations of sTP and sIgG were measured 1 to 7 days after birth. Data from cohorts on individual farms and for all farms were analyzed.
Results—Mean sTP and sIgG concentrations differed significantly between feeding groups. In calves fed colostrum and calves fed CR and CS products, mean ± SD sTP concentration was 5.58 ± 0.67 g/dL and 5.26 ± 0.54 g/dL, respectively, and mean sIgG concentration was 1,868 ± 854 mg/dL and 1,320 ± 620 mg/dL, respectively. The percentage of calves that had failure of passive transfer of immunity (ie, sIgG concentrations < 1,000 mg/dL) was not significantly different between groups.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that sequential feeding of bovine serum-based CR and CS products to neonatal calves is an alternative to feeding colostrum for achieving passive transfer of immunity.
Case Description—A 19-month-old 536.4-kg (1,180-lb) Brown Swiss heifer was referred for evaluation of a firm swelling over the distal aspect of the right metatarsal region and chronic lameness in the right hind limb.
Clinical Findings—Examination of radiographs of the right metatarsophalangeal joints revealed an expansile, smoothly marginated, cyst-like lesion within the distal metaphysis of the metatarsal III and IV bone. Differential diagnoses included bone abscess, bone cyst, aneurysmal bone cyst, neoplasia, osteomyelitis, and metabolic bone disease. Aerobic microbial culture of the aspirate yielded moderate growth of branching, gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria, which were presumptively identified as Nocardia spp. The isolate was subsequently identified as Nocardia arthritidis by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis.
Treatment and Outcome—The lesion was surgically debrided, lavaged, and bandaged. Exercise was restricted, and systemic and local administration of antimicrobials was instituted. After a communication between the abscess and the metatarsophalangeal joints was iatrogenically created, the extralabel use of aminoglycosides was initiated. The heifer had noticeable clinical improvement within 2 weeks after initial evaluation and reportedly had no evidence of lameness and minimal external blemishes 3 months after the second evaluation.
Clinical Relevance—To our knowledge, this is the first report on the diagnosis and management of a long-bone abscess attributable to N arthritidis infection in cattle. Complications encountered during treatment and the decision to engage in extralabel use of antimicrobial agents in the heifer described here may serve as a guide for food animal practitioners faced with the treatment of valuable cattle.
Objective—To describe signalment; surgical findings; short-, medium-, and long-term outcome; and recurrence rate for cattle undergoing celiotomy because of jejunal hemorrhage syndrome (JHS) and to analyze risk factors associated with outcome and recurrence.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—31 dairy cattle with JHS.
Procedures—Medical records were analyzed. Follow-up information was obtained from owners of cattle surviving until discharge.
Results—18 of 31 (58%) cattle undergoing celiotomy survived to initial discharge. Fifteen (48%) and 13 (42%) were alive 6 and 12 months after discharge, respectively. All 5 deaths within 12 months after discharge were attributed to JHS recurrence. Survival time was 12 to 85 months for the 13 long-term survivors. Six of 7 that died > 12 months after celiotomy did so for reasons unrelated to JHS. Recurrence rate among short-term survivors was 7 of 18; 1 of these survived long-term. A significant proportion of affected cattle were Brown Swiss, compared with proportions for other breeds. Manual massage of the bowel to break down clots was associated with a significantly higher short-term survival rate than was en-terectomy or enterotomy. Medium- and long-term survival rate was higher in cattle referred 24 to 48 hours after onset of signs. Length of obstructing blood clots was not associated with outcome. Other factors were not significantly associated with recurrence.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Survival rates were higher than those in other reports. Prompt celiotomy and resolution by use of manual massage were associated with higher survival rates. In this population, JHS recurred in 7 of 18 short-term survivors.