To determine an optimal ceftazidime dosing strategy in Northern leopard frogs (Lithobates pipiens) by evaluation of 2 different doses administered SC and 1 dose administered transcutaneously.
44 Northern leopard frogs (including 10 that were replaced).
Ceftazidime was administered to frogs SC in a forelimb at 20 mg/kg (n = 10; SC20 group) and 40 mg/kg (10; SC40 group) or transcutaneously on the cranial dorsum at 20 mg/kg (10; TC20 group). Two frogs in each ceftazidime group were euthanized 12, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours after drug administration. Plasma, renal, and skin concentrations of ceftazidime were measured by means of reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Four control frogs were used for assay validation.
Mean plasma half-life of ceftazidime in the SC20, SC40, and TC20 groups was 9.01 hours, 14.49 hours, and too low to determine, respectively. Mean maximum plasma ceftazidime concentration was 92.9, 96.0, and 1.3 μg/mL, respectively. For 24 hours after drug administration in the SC20 and SC40 groups, plasma ceftazidime concentration exceeded 8 μg/mL. Renal and skin concentrations were detectable at both doses and routes of administration; however, skin concentrations were significantly lower than renal and plasma concentrations.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Findings indicated that ceftazidime administration to Northern leopard frogs at 20 mg/kg, SC, every 24 hours would achieve a plasma concentration exceeding the value considered effective against common amphibian pathogens. Transcutaneous administration of the injectable ceftazidime formulation at 20 mg/kg warrants further investigation but is not currently recommended because of a potential lack of efficacy.
To evaluate SC administration of 2 sedation protocols, ketamine-midazolam (KM) and alfaxalone-midazolam (AM), in African pygmy hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris).
9 healthy adult hedgehogs (5 males, 4 females).
A randomized, blinded, complete crossover study was performed. Sedation was induced by SC administration of either ketamine (30 mg/kg [14 mg/lb]) with midazolam (1 mg/kg [0.45 mg/lb]) or alfaxalone (3 mg/kg [1.4 mg/lb]) with midazolam (1 mg/kg), including a 2-week washout period between treatments. Flumazenil (0.05 mg/kg [0.02 mg/lb], SC) was administered 45 minutes after administration of either protocol to reverse the effects of midazolam. Physiologic variables, reflexes, and behaviors were monitored. Food intake and body weight were measured before and after sedation.
Deep sedation characterized by complete loss of the righting reflex, decreased jaw tone, decreased pelvic limb withdrawal reflex, and preservation of the palpebral reflex was produced in 7 of 9 hedgehogs after KM administration and all 9 hedgehogs after AM administration. Mean ± SD time to loss of righting reflex was 6.4 ± 2.4 minutes after KM administration and 10 ± 4.0 minutes after AM administration. Following flumazenil administration, no significant difference was found in recovery time between sedation with KM (18.8 ± 12.7 minutes) and AM (14.4 ± 7.8 minutes). No significant differences were found in respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, or body temperature between protocols, whereas heart rate was higher for sedation with KM. Both sedation protocols resulted in a transient reduction in food intake.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Subcutaneous administration of KM and AM provided deep sedation that might be useful to facilitate routine, noninvasive procedures in hedgehogs.
A captive 12.5-year-old 35.7-kg (78.5-lb) hemicastrated Mexican gray wolf (Canis lupus baileyi) had a 2.5-month history of right carpal swelling associated with mild lameness. The swollen area was nonulcerated, firm, and nonmobile and abutted the bone. Radiography revealed a locally extensive soft tissue opacity subtended by periosteal reaction and slight radio-lucency of the distal portion of the radius. Thoracic radiography revealed widespread pulmonary nodular radiopacities. Abdominal ultrasonography detected an 8-cm-diameter, cavitated mass with soft tissue opacity in the right caudal portion of the abdomen. The wolf was euthanized via IV administration of pentobarbital, and the carcass was