Objective—To determine prevalence of FeLV infection
and serum antibodies against feline immunodeficiency
virus (FIV) in unowned free-roaming cats.
Design—Cross-sectional serologic survey.
Animals—733 unowned free-roaming cats in
Raleigh, NC, and 1,143 unowned free-roaming cats in
Results—In Raleigh, overall prevalence of FeLV infection
was 5.3%, and overall seroprevalence for FIV
was 2.3%. In Gainesville, overall prevalence of FeLV
infection was 3.7%, and overall seroprevalence for
FIV was 4.3%. Overall, FeLV prevalence was 4.3%,
and seroprevalence for FIV was 3.5%. Prevalence of
FeLV infection was not significantly different between
males (4.9%) and females (3.8%), although seroprevalence
for FIV was significantly higher in male
cats (6.3%) than in female cats (1.5%).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Prevalence of
FeLV infection and seroprevalence for FIV in unowned
free-roaming cats in Raleigh and Gainesville are similar
to prevalence rates reported for owned cats in the
United States. Male cats are at increased risk for
exposure to FIV, compared with female cats. (J Am
Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:620–622)
Objective—To determine the relationship between
parturition date and fetal skeletal mineralization
detected radiographically in cats.
Design—Prospective clinical trial.
Animals—31 queens and their 49 pregnancies.
Procedure—Seventeen pregnant queens were
radiographed with a computed radiography system
every 2 to 3 days from 1 week after pregnancy was
identified by abdominal palpation until parturition.
Radiographs were evaluated to determine the first
identifiable mineralization of 16 bony structures
and teeth during each pregnancy. This information
was used to establish a table of expected parturition
dates on the basis of fetal mineralization.
Single radiographs from an additional 32 pregnant
cats were evaluated, and predictions of parturition
dates were made on the basis of the mineralization
Results—Mineralization was first detected 25 to 29
days prior to parturition (dpp). Mineralization was
determined for the spinal column (22 to 27 dpp), skull
(21 to 27 dpp), ribs (20 to 25 dpp), scapula (17 to 24
dpp), humerus (20 to 24 dpp), femur (19 to 23 dpp),
radius (15 to 22 dpp), tibia (15 to 21 dpp), ulna (5 to 21
dpp), pelvis (8 to 20 dpp), fibula (0 to 17 dpp), tail (8 to
16 dpp), metacarpals and metatarsals (3 to 14 dpp),
phalanges (0 to 11 dpp), calcaneus (0 to 10 dpp), and
teeth (1 to 6 dpp). Date of parturition was predictable
within 3 days in 75% of cats.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Identification
of bony structures in the fetus is useful in estimating
the time to parturition in queens. (J Am Vet Med
Objective—To compare heartworm serum antibody
(Ab) and antigen (Ag) test results, using commercial
laboratories and in-house heartworm test kits, with
necropsy findings in a population of shelter cats.
Animals—330 cats at an animal shelter.
Procedure—Between March and June 1998, 30 ml
of blood was collected from the cranial and caudal
venae cavae of 330 cats that were euthanatized at a
local animal shelter. Results of heartworm Ab and
Ag serologic tests for heartworm infection were
compared with necropsy findings in this population
of cats, using commercial laboratories and in-house
test kits to measure serum Ab and Ag concentrations.
Results—On necropsy, adult Dirofilaria immitis were
found in 19 of 330 (5.8%) cats. Combining results
from serum Ab and Ag tests achieved higher sensitivities
than using serum Ab and Ag test results alone
(ie, maximum sensitivities of 100% vs 89.5%, respectively),
whereas use of serum Ag and Ab test results
alone achieved higher specificities compared with the
use of a combination of serum Ab and Ag results (ie,
maximum specificities of 99.4% vs 92.9%, respectively).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—On the basis
of our findings, if a cat has clinical signs that suggest
heartworm disease despite a negative heartworm
serum Ab test result, an alternative heartworm Ab
test, a heartworm Ag test, thoracic radiography, or
two-dimensional echocardiography should be performed.
(J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216:693–700)