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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Determine bovine leukemia virus (BLV) seroprevalence of adult female cattle in Eastern Kansas beef herds and the proviral load (PVL) of those cattle found to be ELISA positive.

ANIMALS

Convenience sample of 2,845 cows from 44 beef herds.

PROCEDURES

BLV serostatus was determined using an ELISA antibody test (gp-51; IDEXX). BLV quantitative PCR (qPCR) status and PVL were determined utilizing a qPCR test (SS1 qPCR test; CentralStar Laboratories). The association of age, herd size, and body condition score (BCS) category on the probability of being BLV positive was evaluated with a multiple variable logistic regression analysis that used BLV status as a binary outcome, herd nested within ranch as a random effect, and BCS, herd size, and age category as fixed effects.

RESULTS

Forty-two of 44 herds had at least 1 BLV ELISA-positive cow (95.5% herd seroprevalence). Overall, 1,564 of the 2,845 cows were BLV ELISA positive (55.0% individual animal prevalence). No association between BLV ELISA status and herd size or BCS was identified. When evaluated by age, the model-adjusted probability of being BLV ELISA positive was lowest for heifers (1 year of age, first parity) and increased until 5 to 6 years of age. Of the 1,564 ELISA-positive animals, 838 were qPCR positive (53.6%). The model-adjusted probability of being qPCR positive was not associated with age, herd size, or BCS category.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

This study indicated that BLV-seropositive status both as a herd classification and individual animal classification was very common in this population. Because the percentage of BLV-seropositive cows varied between herds and by age, this study provides evidence that it is essential for investigators to control for herd and age in any analysis of the association of BLV serostatus and health and production outcomes of interest. Some BLV ELSIA-seropositive cows were classified as BLV negative by qPCR, and risk factors may differ between classification status by ELISA and qPCR.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine anti-bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) antibody titers for nasal secretions and serum from beef calves following administration of a modified-live (MLV) BRSV vaccine.

ANIMALS

60 healthy newborn purebred beef calves.

PROCEDURES

Calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: intranasal (IN)-SC (IN MLV BRSV vaccine within 24 hours of birth and SC MLV BRSV vaccine at 2 months of age), SC-IN (SC MLV BRSV vaccine within 24 hours of birth and IN MLV BRSV vaccine at 2 months of age), or NO-IN (no vaccine within 24 hours of birth and IN MLV BRSV vaccine at 2 months of age). Nasal secretion and serum samples were collected for determination of anti-BRSV antibodies within 24 hours of birth and 2 and 6 months of age.

RESULTS

Titers of anti-BRSV IgA antibodies in nasal secretions and BRSV neutralizing antibodies in serum were similar among groups at each sampling time. Within 24 hours of birth, nasal anti-BRSV IgA titers were negligible. At 2 months, mean nasal anti-BRSV IgA titers for calves in IN-SC, SC-IN, and NO-IN groups were 192.84, 224.49, and 114.71, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Concentrations of anti-BRSV IgA antibodies in the nasal secretions and BRSV neutralizing antibodies in the serum of young beef calves following an MLV BRSV vaccine protocol that consisted of IN or SC vaccine within 24 hours of birth and vice versa at 2 months of age were not different from that following only an IN MLV BRSV vaccine at 2 months of age. However, the lack of any differences may have been attributed to other factors. (Am J Vet Res 2021;82:746–751)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Determine the association between bovine leukemia virus (BLV) status and fertility in beef cows. BLV-status was defined using 3 different testing strategies (ELISA-, quantitative polymerase chain reaction- [qPCR], and high proviral load [PVL]-status). Fertility was defined as the overall probability of pregnancy as well as the probability of becoming pregnant in the first 21 days of the breeding season.

ANIMALS

Convenience sample of 2,820 cows from 43 beef herds.

PROCEDURES

The association of BLV-status with the probability of becoming pregnant was evaluated with a multivariable logistic regression analysis that used pregnancy status as a binary outcome, herd nested within ranch as a random effect, and BLV-status (ELISA-, qPCR-, and PVL-status as separate models) and potential covariates (eg, age, Body Condition Score [BCS] category, and interactions) as fixed effects.

RESULTS

Raw data revealed that 55% (1,552/2,820) of cows were classified as BLV-positive by ELISA, and 95.3% (41/43) of herds had a least 1 ELISA-positive cow. Classification as BLV ELISA-positive was positively associated with the probability of being pregnant; however, when qPCR or PVL were used to classify BLV-status, there was no association with the probability of being pregnant. None of the methods of classifying BLV-status were associated with the probability of becoming pregnant in the first 21 days of the breeding season.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

This study did not find evidence that testing beef cows for BLV-status using ELISA, qPCR, or a cut-off of 0.9 PVL and removing test-positive cows will improve cowherd fertility as described by the probability of becoming pregnant during the breeding season or becoming pregnant during the first 21 days of the breeding season.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

The objectives of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of chronic Anaplasma marginale infection in beef bulls from eastern Kansas and compare breeding soundness parameters between A marginale–infected and uninfected bulls. We hypothesized that bulls with chronic anaplasmosis would have inferior breeding soundness exam (BSE) outcomes as a result of persistent A marginale infection or the consequence of initial clinical disease compared to uninfected bulls.

ANIMALS

535 client-owned beef bulls from eastern Kansas undergoing routine BSE.

METHODS

Complete BSEs were conducted by participating veterinarians according to the second edition of the Society for Theriogenology Manual for Breeding Soundness Examination of Bulls. Blood samples were collected for PCV determination and analysis of A marginale infection status via quantitative PCR and cELISA. Logistic and linear regression methods were used to evaluate factors associated with A marginale infection status and BSE parameters.

RESULTS

Prevalence of chronic A marginale infection was 46% (245/535) among bulls. Unsatisfactory BSE outcome was not statistically associated with chronic anaplasmosis in this study population, although more bulls with chronic anaplasmosis had unsatisfactory BSE outcomes (15.0 ± 2.4% vs 12.0 ± 2.2%).

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Chronic anaplasmosis is prevalent among eastern Kansas breeding bulls; however, no negative association between chronic anaplasmosis and breeding soundness at time of BSE was observed.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association