Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 4 of 4 items for

  • Author or Editor: Sharon M. Dial x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate potential risk factors for Coccidioides infection among dogs living in a region in which the organism is endemic (Pima and Maricopa counties, Arizona).

Design—Community-based longitudinal and crosssectional studies.

Animals—104 healthy 4- to 6-month-old puppies (longitudinal study) and 381 4- to 18-month-old dogs with unknown serostatus (cross-sectional study).

Procedure—Dogs in the longitudinal study were tested 3 times at 6-month intervals for anticoccidioidal antibodies; dogs in the cross-sectional study were tested only once. Owners of all dogs completed a questionnaire on potential environmental exposures.

Results—In the longitudinal study, the relative risk of infection for dogs that were outdoors during the day was 4.9 times the risk for dogs that were kept indoors. Seropositive dogs in the cross-sectional study were 6.2 times as likely to have access to > 1 acre to roam as were seronegative dogs. Logistic regression analysis indicated that the odds of infection increased with age (odds ratio [OR], 1.1), amount of roaming space (OR, 2.4), and walking in the desert (OR, 2.2). Walking on sidewalks had a protective effect (OR, 0.4).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that in regions in which the organism is endemic, dogs that spend more time outdoors or have more land in which to roam are at greater risk of infection with Coccidioides spp. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005; 226:1851–1854)

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the incidence of Coccidioides infection among dogs residing in a region in which the organism is endemic (Pima and Maricopa counties, Arizona) and estimate the rate of clinical illness.

Design—Community-based longitudinal and crosssectional studies.

Animals—124 healthy 4- to 6-month-old seronegative puppies (longitudinal study) and 381 4- to 18-monthold dogs with unknown serostatus (cross-sectional study).

Procedure—Dogs in the longitudinal study were tested at 6-month intervals for at least 1 year for anticoccidioidal antibodies. Dogs that became ill were evaluated for coccidioidomycosis. Dogs in the cross-sectional study were tested for anticoccidioidal antibodies once, and clinical abnormalities were recorded.

Results—28 of the 104 (27%) dogs that completed the longitudinal study developed anticoccidioidal antibodies. Thirty-two of the 381 (8%) dogs in the crosssectional study had anticoccidioidal antibodies. Five seropositive dogs in the longitudinal study and 13 seropositive dogs in the cross-sectional study had clinical signs of disease. The remaining seropositive dogs were otherwise healthy and were classified as subclinically infected. Survival analysis indicated that the cumulative probability of infection by 2 years of age was 28%, and the cumulative probability of clinical infection by 2 years of age was 6%. Titers for clinically and subclinically infected dogs overlapped.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that young dogs living in the study area had a high likelihood of becoming infected with Coccidioides spp, but few developed clinical illness. Serologic testing alone was insufficient for a diagnosis of clinical disease because of the overlap in titers between clinically and subclinically infected dogs. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226:1846–1850)

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT) would affect incorporation of an autogenous cancellous bone graft in diaphyseal ulnar defects in cats.

Animals—12 mature cats.

Procedure—Bilateral nonunion diaphyseal ulnar defects were created in each cat. An autogenous cancellous bone graft was implanted in 1 ulnar defect in each cat, with the contralateral ulnar defect serving as a nongrafted specimen. Six cats were treated by use of hyperbaric oxygen at 2 atmospheres absolute for 90 minutes once daily for 14 days, and 6 cats were not treated (control group). Bone labeling was performed, using fluorochrome markers. Cats were euthanatized 5 weeks after implanting, and barium sulfate was infused to evaluate vascularization of grafts. Ulnas were evaluated by use of radiography, microangiography, histologic examination, and histomorphometric examination.

Results—Radiographic scores did not differ between treatment groups. Microangiographic appearance of grafted defects was similar between groups, with all having adequate vascularization. Differences were not observed between treated and nontreated groups in the overall histologic appearance of decalcified samples of tissue in grafted defects. Mean distance between fluorescent labels was significantly greater in cats given HBOT than in nontreated cats. Median percentage of bone formation in grafted defects was significantly greater in cats given HBOT.

Conclusions—Hyperbaric oxygen treatment increased the distance between fluorescent labels and percentage of bone formation when incorporating autogenous cancellous bone grafts in induced nonunion diaphyseal ulnar defects in cats, but HBOT did not affect revascularization, radiographic appearance, or qualitative histologic appearance of the grafts. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:691–698)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research