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Abstract

Objective—To determine the incidence of Coccidioides infection among dogs residing in a region in which the organism is endemic (Pima and Maricopa counties, Arizona) and estimate the rate of clinical illness.

Design—Community-based longitudinal and crosssectional studies.

Animals—124 healthy 4- to 6-month-old seronegative puppies (longitudinal study) and 381 4- to 18-monthold dogs with unknown serostatus (cross-sectional study).

Procedure—Dogs in the longitudinal study were tested at 6-month intervals for at least 1 year for anticoccidioidal antibodies. Dogs that became ill were evaluated for coccidioidomycosis. Dogs in the cross-sectional study were tested for anticoccidioidal antibodies once, and clinical abnormalities were recorded.

Results—28 of the 104 (27%) dogs that completed the longitudinal study developed anticoccidioidal antibodies. Thirty-two of the 381 (8%) dogs in the crosssectional study had anticoccidioidal antibodies. Five seropositive dogs in the longitudinal study and 13 seropositive dogs in the cross-sectional study had clinical signs of disease. The remaining seropositive dogs were otherwise healthy and were classified as subclinically infected. Survival analysis indicated that the cumulative probability of infection by 2 years of age was 28%, and the cumulative probability of clinical infection by 2 years of age was 6%. Titers for clinically and subclinically infected dogs overlapped.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that young dogs living in the study area had a high likelihood of becoming infected with Coccidioides spp, but few developed clinical illness. Serologic testing alone was insufficient for a diagnosis of clinical disease because of the overlap in titers between clinically and subclinically infected dogs. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226:1846–1850)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate potential risk factors for Coccidioides infection among dogs living in a region in which the organism is endemic (Pima and Maricopa counties, Arizona).

Design—Community-based longitudinal and crosssectional studies.

Animals—104 healthy 4- to 6-month-old puppies (longitudinal study) and 381 4- to 18-month-old dogs with unknown serostatus (cross-sectional study).

Procedure—Dogs in the longitudinal study were tested 3 times at 6-month intervals for anticoccidioidal antibodies; dogs in the cross-sectional study were tested only once. Owners of all dogs completed a questionnaire on potential environmental exposures.

Results—In the longitudinal study, the relative risk of infection for dogs that were outdoors during the day was 4.9 times the risk for dogs that were kept indoors. Seropositive dogs in the cross-sectional study were 6.2 times as likely to have access to > 1 acre to roam as were seronegative dogs. Logistic regression analysis indicated that the odds of infection increased with age (odds ratio [OR], 1.1), amount of roaming space (OR, 2.4), and walking in the desert (OR, 2.2). Walking on sidewalks had a protective effect (OR, 0.4).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that in regions in which the organism is endemic, dogs that spend more time outdoors or have more land in which to roam are at greater risk of infection with Coccidioides spp. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005; 226:1851–1854)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

4-Methylpyrazole (4-mp), an alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor, was administered to dogs to treat ethylene glycol (eg) intoxication. Eleven dogs were given 10.6 g of eg/kg of body weight; 5 dogs were treated with 4-mp 5 hours after eg ingestion and 6 dogs were treated with 4-mp 8 hours after eg ingestion. 4-Methylpyrazole was administered iv as a 50-mg/dl solution in 50% polyethylene glycol: initial dose, 20 mg/kg; at 12 hours after initial dose, 15 mg/kg; at 24 hours after initial dose, 10 mg/kg; and at 30 hours after initial dose, 5 mg/kg. Physical, biochemical, hematologic, blood gas, serum and urine eg concentrations, and urinalysis findings were evaluated at 0, 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 48, 72 hours, and at 1 week and 2 weeks after eg ingestion.

Dogs of both groups developed clinicopathologic signs associated with eg intoxication, including cns depression, hyperosmolality, high anion gap metabolic acidosis, polydipsia, polyuria, calcium oxalate monohydrate and dihydrate crystalluria, and isosthenuria. Fractional excretion of sodium was increased in all dogs between 1 and 9 hours after eg ingestion, but remained increased beyond 24 hours only in the 2 dogs treated at 8 hours after eg ingestion that developed acute renal failure. All dogs treated 5 hours after eg ingestion recovered without morphologic, biochemical, or clinical evidence of renal impairment. Of the 6 dogs treated 8 hours after eg ingestion, 2 developed acute renal failure. One of the dogs treated 8 hours after eg ingestion remained isosthenuric for 2 months, but did not manifest any other signs of renal impairment. Of the dogs treated 8 hours after eg ingestion, 3 recovered without morphologic, biochemical, or clinical evidence of renal impairment. Serum half-life of eg was prolonged in the dogs treated 8 hours after eg ingestion. Percentage of eg excreted unchanged was 84 ± 2% in the dogs treated 5 hours after eg ingestion, and was 40 ± 10% in the dogs treated 8 hours after eg ingestion. 4-Methylpyrazole was effective in preventing renal failure in all dogs given 10.6 g of eg/kg when treatment was initiated by 5 hours after eg ingestion, and in 4 of 6 dogs when treatment was initiated by 8 hours after eg ingestion.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

The efficacy of 4-methylpyrazole (4-mp) and ethanol as treatment for ethylene glycol (eg) intoxication in cats was compared. Twenty-two cats were assigned at random to 6 experimental groups. Cats of 1 experimental group were given only 4-mp; those of another experimental group were given only eg. Cats of 3 experimental groups were intoxicated with eg and given 4-mp at 0 hour or 2 or 3 hours after eg ingestion, and those of 1 experimental group were given eg and treated with ethanol 3 hours after eg ingestion. Physical, biochemical, hematologic, blood gas, serum and urine eg concentrations, and urinalysis findings were evaluated at 0, 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours, 1 week, and 2 weeks after eg ingestion or 4-mp treatment in cats of the 4-mp only group. The half-life of eg and percentage of ingested eg excreted unchanged were determined for each group.

4-Methylpyrazole treatment at 0 hour was most effective at preventing metabolism of eg. 4-Methylpyrazole was not effective in preventing development of renal failure when given 2 or 3 hours after eg ingestion. Ethanol given 3 hours after eg ingestion was successful in preventing development of renal dysfunction in 2 of the 6 cats treated 3 hours after eg ingestion. Of the remaining 4 cats treated with ethanol, 2 developed transient renal dysfunction and 2 developed acute oliguric renal failure and were euthanatized.

4-Methylpyrazol given 2 or 3 hours after eg ingestion was less effective in preventing eg metabolism than was ethanol given 3 hours after eg ingestion. Therefore 4-mp, at the dose found to be effective in dogs, cannot be recommended as an alternative to ethanol for treatment of eg intoxication in cats.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT) would affect incorporation of an autogenous cancellous bone graft in diaphyseal ulnar defects in cats.

Animals—12 mature cats.

Procedure—Bilateral nonunion diaphyseal ulnar defects were created in each cat. An autogenous cancellous bone graft was implanted in 1 ulnar defect in each cat, with the contralateral ulnar defect serving as a nongrafted specimen. Six cats were treated by use of hyperbaric oxygen at 2 atmospheres absolute for 90 minutes once daily for 14 days, and 6 cats were not treated (control group). Bone labeling was performed, using fluorochrome markers. Cats were euthanatized 5 weeks after implanting, and barium sulfate was infused to evaluate vascularization of grafts. Ulnas were evaluated by use of radiography, microangiography, histologic examination, and histomorphometric examination.

Results—Radiographic scores did not differ between treatment groups. Microangiographic appearance of grafted defects was similar between groups, with all having adequate vascularization. Differences were not observed between treated and nontreated groups in the overall histologic appearance of decalcified samples of tissue in grafted defects. Mean distance between fluorescent labels was significantly greater in cats given HBOT than in nontreated cats. Median percentage of bone formation in grafted defects was significantly greater in cats given HBOT.

Conclusions—Hyperbaric oxygen treatment increased the distance between fluorescent labels and percentage of bone formation when incorporating autogenous cancellous bone grafts in induced nonunion diaphyseal ulnar defects in cats, but HBOT did not affect revascularization, radiographic appearance, or qualitative histologic appearance of the grafts. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:691–698)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective

To evaluate effects of shelf arthroplasty on coxofemoral joint laxity and progression of degenerative joint disease in young dogs with hip dysplasia.

Design

Prospective, controlled study.

Animals

10 dogs between 10 and 24 months old and weighing between 20 and 27 kg. All dogs had bilateral coxofemoral joint laxity (ie, an Ortolani's sign).

Procedure

In all dogs, shelf arthroplasty was performed on the right coxofemoral joints, and a sham procedure was performed on the left. Dogs were evaluated before and after surgery by means of lameness assessment, coxofemoral joint palpation and goniometry, thigh circumference measurement, and radiography.

Results

There were no significant changes in coxofemoral joint mobility, range of motion, joint laxity, degree of degenerative joint disease, or thigh circumference during the study. A greater amount of periacetabular bone formed on the right side than on the left side; however, dogs did not develop large bony shelves, and the amount of periarticular bone decreased over time. The polymer implants remained in their original position and were encapsulated by fibrous tissue. There was no histologic evidence of osteoconduction by the implants.

Clinical Implications

The polymer implants used in this procedure do not appear to be osteoinductive. Shelf arthroplasty was associated with minimal morbidity and was not associated with serious adverse sequelae in this study, but the procedure did not alter the progression of hip dysplasia in these dogs. We cannot advocate shelf arthroplasty using this polymer as a treatment for dogs with hip dysplasia. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996;208: 1838-1845)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association