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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



A 1-year-old male eclectus parrot (Eclectus roratus) with a 3- to 4-month history of blepharospasm in the right eye was referred to a veterinary medical teaching hospital for further evaluation. Conventional medical treatments had been ineffective. The referring avian specialist had plucked a suspected ectopic feather from the right eye 6 weeks prior to the referral evaluation.


The parrot was sedated, and ophthalmic examination of the right eye with slit-lamp biomicroscopy revealed a 3 × 2 × 2-mm raised vascular mass with a focally pigmented center associated with the temporal aspect of the leading edge of the third eyelid. No abnormalities were detected in the left eye.


The parrot was anesthetized, and the right eye mass was excised and submitted for histologic examination. Histologically, there was a single pigmented feather follicle bulb surrounded by multiple discrete lymphoid follicles and moderate lymphoplasmacytic inflammation within the substantia propria of the third eyelid conjunctiva. The histologically normal feather follicle in an abnormal location classified the lesion as a choristoma. Nine months after surgery, the parrot had no signs of ocular discomfort and no overt regrowth of the feather follicle.


For the eclectus parrot of this report, a lesion caused by normal differentiation of an ectopic feather follicle in the right third eyelid was successfully treated. A third eyelid choristoma appears to be a hitherto unreported pathological finding in avian species. Although rare, the presence of a choristoma should be considered as a differential diagnosis for birds with blepharospasm.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To evaluate 2 doses of alfaxalone on cardiopulmonary parameters, temperature, sedation, endotracheal intubation, the incidence of muscle tremors, and radiographic positioning in Quaker parrots previously administered intranasal midazolam and butorphanol.


10 healthy adult Quaker parrots (male = 5; female = 5).


A randomized, masked, crossover study was conducted where birds received midazolam (2 mg/kg) and butorphanol (2 mg/kg) intranasally 15 minutes prior to a low- or high-dose of intramuscular alfaxalone: 2 mg/kg (LDA) or 5 mg/kg (HDA), respectively. Heart (HR) and respiratory rate (RR), cloacal temperature, sedation quality, and ability to position for radiographs were recorded over time. The incidence of muscle tremors and the ability to intubate were recorded. Data were compared to baseline values and between treatments where appropriate. Significance was set at P < .05.


There were no significant differences in HR, RR, cloacal temperature, and sedation scores between treatments at any time point. Duration of time from midazolam-butorphanol administration to complete recovery from treatment administration was significantly shorter for LDA when compared to HDA (90 [60 to 195] vs 127.5 [90 to 10] minutes, respectively). Compared to baseline, sedation scores were significantly higher from T = 15 to 60 for LDA and from T = 15 to 75 for HDA. The incidence of muscle tremors was greater in HDA (9/10) than in LDA (7/10). All birds were successfully intubated and positioned for radiographs.


The combination of intranasal midazolam-butorphanol and intramuscular alfaxalone at the doses examined was a safe and effective method for sedating Quaker parrots. LDA produced adequate sedation with a shorter time to recovery and with fewer muscle fasciculations when compared to HDA.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association