To determine oxytetracycline concentrations in plasma and in fluid from Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis (CPT)-inoculated tissue chambers (used as experimental abscess models) and uninoculated (control) tissue chambers in sheep after IM or local administration of the drug and to investigate whether CPT growth was reduced or eliminated by these treatments.
10 clinically normal female sheep.
Sterile tissue chambers were surgically implanted in both paralumbar fossae of each sheep; ≥ 2 weeks later (day −6), 1 randomly selected chamber was inoculated with CPT, and the opposite chamber was injected with sterile growth medium. Sheep received oxytetracycline IM (n = 5) or by percutaneous injection into CPT-inoculated (4) or uninoculated (1) chambers on day 0. Tissue fluid from each chamber and venous blood samples for plasma collection were obtained at predetermined times over 6 days for bacterial counts (tissue chambers) and analysis of oxytetracycline concentrations (tissue chambers and plasma). Sheep were euthanized on day 6. Regional lymph nodes were collected bilaterally from each sheep for culture.
Measurable concentrations of oxytetracycline were present in each chamber throughout the study, regardless of administration route or presence of CPT. No CPT growth was detected after the 48-hour time point in inoculated chambers injected with oxytetracycline; however, CPT was isolated from all inoculated chambers throughout the study after IM drug administration. One regional lymph node (ipsilateral to a CPT-inoculated, oxytetracycline-injected chamber with no CPT growth after 48 hours) was culture positive for CPT.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Intralesional administration of oxytetracycline may eliminate growth of CPT locally, but complete elimination of the organism remains difficult.
Flash glucose monitoring systems (FGMS) are frequently used for interstitial glucose monitoring in dogs with diabetes mellitus and are typically placed between the scapulae. We aimed to evaluate the variability between glucose measurements from FGMS placed in 2 locations (between the scapulae and over the hip) in non-diabetic dogs during rapidly induced hypoglycemia.
24 apparently healthy colony dogs that were subjects in a teaching laboratory.
Prospective interventional study. FGMS sensors (FreeStyle Libre 14-day system) were placed between the scapulae and over the hip of all dogs. Regular insulin was administered (0.3 u/kg IV) and subsequent hypoglycemia was corrected. Before insulin administration and every 10 minutes over 90 minutes, interstitial glucose was recorded from both locations, and blood glucose was measured with a point-of-care blood glucose monitor (AlphaTRAK 2).
There was a constant bias of 5.6 mg/dL (95% limits of agreement: −26.3 to 37.5 mg/dL) between locations, but the proportional bias was not apparent. There was a correlation between FGMS locations (r = 0.731, P = < .001). Sensor site B was clinically accurate with 100% of paired samples within Parkes error grid zones A (83%) and B (17%) but did not meet the criteria for analytical accuracy.
In this model of induced hypoglycemia in healthy dogs, variation between measurements from FGMS locations was unlikely to have affected the clinical outcome. Placement of FGMS over the hip may be an acceptable alternative to placement between the scapulae, but the utility in hyperglycemic dogs is unknown.
OBJECTIVE To establish the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of desflurane and evaluate the effects of 2 opioids on MAC in sheep.
ANIMALS 8 adult nulliparous mixed-breed sheep.
PROCEDURES A randomized crossover design was used. Each sheep was evaluated individually on 2 occasions (to allow assessment of the effects of each of 2 opioids), separated by a minimum of 10 days. On each occasion, sheep were anesthetized with desflurane in 100% oxygen, MAC of desflurane was determined, oxymorphone (0.05 mg/kg) or hydromorphone (0.10 mg/kg) was administered IV, and MAC was redetermined. Physiologic variables and arterial blood gas and electrolyte concentrations were measured at baseline (before MAC determination, with end-tidal desflurane concentration maintained at 10%) and each time MAC was determined. Timing of various stages of anesthesia was recorded for both occasions.
RESULTS Mean ± SEM MAC of desflurane was 8.6 ± 0.2%. Oxymorphone or hydromorphone administration resulted in significantly lower MAC (7.6 ± 0.4% and 7.9 ± 0.2%, respectively). Cardiac output at MAC determination for desflurane alone and for desflurane with opioid administration was higher than that at baseline. No difference was identified among hematologic values at any point. Effects of oxymorphone and hydromorphone on durations of various stages of anesthesia did not differ significantly.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE MAC of desflurane in nulliparous adult sheep was established. Intravenous administration of oxymorphone or hydromorphone led to a decrease in MAC; however, the clinical importance of that decrease was minor relative to the effect in other species.
To compare analgesic efficacy and fetal effects between transdermal administration of fentanyl and IM administration of buprenorphine in pregnant sheep.
12 healthy pregnant ewes.
Before study initiation, each ewe was confirmed pregnant with a single fetus between 113 and 117 days of gestation. Ewes were randomly assigned to receive buprenorphine (0.01 mg/kg, IM, q 8 h for 48 hours beginning 1 hour before anesthesia induction; n = 6) or fentanyl (a combination of transdermal fentanyl patches sufficient to deliver a dose of 2 μg of fentanyl/kg/h applied between the dorsal borders of the scapulae 24 hours before anesthesia induction; 6). Ewes were anesthetized and underwent a surgical procedure to instrument the fetus with an arterial catheter and place a catheter in utero for collection of amniotic fluid samples. Physiologic variables and behavioral changes indicative of pain were assessed, and amniotic fluid and blood samples from ewes and fetuses were collected for determination of drug concentrations at predetermined times.
Both protocols provided acceptable postoperative analgesia with no adverse effects observed in the ewes or fetuses. Compared with the buprenorphine protocol, the fentanyl protocol induced more profound analgesia, decreased the requirement for isoflurane during surgery, and was associated with a shorter anesthesia recovery time. Fetal indices did not differ significantly between the 2 analgesic protocols.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Results indicated that both protocols provided acceptable analgesia. However, the fentanyl protocol was superior in regard to the extent of analgesia induced, inhalant-sparing effects, and anesthesia recovery time.