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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

The study objectives were to 1) determine the mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) surface expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and transcriptome-wide gene expression changes following IL-1β + TGF-β2 dual licensing and 2) evaluate if IL-1β + TGF-β2 dual-licensed MSCs had a greater ability to positively modulate tenocyte function compared to naive MSCs.

SAMPLE

Equine bone marrow–derived MSCs from 6 donors and equine superficial digital flexor tenocytes from 3 donors.

METHODS

Experiments were performed in vitro. Flow cytometry and bulk RNA sequencing were utilized to determine naive and dual-licensed MSC phenotype and transcriptome-wide changes in gene expression. Conditioned media were generated from MSCs and utilized in tenocyte cell culture assays as a method to determine the effect of MSC paracrine factors on tenocyte function.

RESULTS

Dual-licensed MSCs have a reduced expression of MHC class I and exhibit enrichment in functional pathways associated with the extracellular matrix, cell signaling, and tissue development. Additionally, dual-licensed MSC-conditioned media significantly improved in vitro tenocyte migration and metabolism to a greater degree than naive MSC-conditioned media. In tenocytes exposed to IL-1β, dual-licensed conditioned media also positively modulated tenocyte gene expression.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Our data indicate that conditioned media containing paracrine factors secreted from dual-licensed MSCs significantly modulates in vitro tenocyte function, which may confer benefits in vivo to healing tendons following injury. Additionally, due to reduced MHC class I expression in dual-licensed MSCs, this technique may also provide an avenue to provide an effective “off-the-shelf” allogenic source of MSCs.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

The objective of this study was to characterize extracellular vesicles (EVs) in plasma and synovial fluid obtained from horses with and without naturally occurring post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA).

ANIMALS

EVs were isolated from plasma and synovial fluid from horses with (n = 6) and without (n = 6) PTOA.

METHODS

Plasma and synovial fluid EVs were characterized with respect to quantity, size, and surface markers. Small RNA sequencing was performed, and differentially expressed microRNAs (miRNAs) underwent bioinformatic analysis to identify putative targets and to explore potential associations with specific biological processes.

RESULTS

Plasma and synovial fluid samples from horses with PTOA had a significantly higher proportion of exosomes and a lower proportion of microvesicles compared to horses without PTOA. Small RNA sequencing revealed several differentially expressed miRNAs, including miR-144, miR-219-3p, and miR-199a-3l in plasma and miR-199a-3p, miR-214, and miR-9094 in synovial fluid EVs. Bioinformatics analysis of the differentially expressed miRNAs highlighted their potential role in fibrosis, differentiation of chondrocytes, apoptosis, and inflammation pathways in PTOA.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

We have identified dynamic molecular changes in the small noncoding signatures of plasma and synovial fluid EVs in horses with naturally occurring PTOA. These findings could serve to identify promising biomarkers in the pathogenesis of PTOA, to facilitate the development of targeted therapies, and to aid in establishing appropriate translational models of PTOA.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association