Objective—To develop laparoscopic-assisted techniques
for enterostomy feeding tube placement and
full-thickness biopsy of the jejunum in dogs.
Animals—15 healthy dogs.
Procedure—Dogs were anesthetized, and positive
pressure ventilation was provided. A trocar cannula
for the laparoscope was inserted on the ventral midline
caudal to the umbilicus. For enterostomy tube
placement, a second trocar cannula was placed lateral
to the right rectus abdominis muscle, and a
Babcock forceps was used to grasp the duodenum
and elevate it to the incision made for the cannula.
The duodenum was sutured to the abdominal wall,
and a feeding tube was inserted. For jejunal biopsy, a
third trocar cannula was placed lateral to the left rectus
abdominis muscle. A portion of jejunum was elevated
to the incision for the second or third cannula,
and a full-thickness biopsy specimen was obtained. A
second specimen was obtained from another portion
of jejunum, and retention sutures for the 2 biopsy
sites were tied so that serosal surfaces of the biopsy
sites were apposed to each other. Dogs were euthanatized
30 days after surgery.
Results—The enterostomy tube was properly positioned
and functional in all 8 dogs that underwent
laparoscopic-assisted enterostomy tube placement,
and sufficient samples for histologic examination
were obtained from all 7 dogs that underwent laparoscopic-assisted jejunal biopsy. None of the dogs had
any identifiable problems after surgery.
Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that in dogs, laparoscopic-assisted procedures
for enterostomy tube placement and jejunal biopsy
are an acceptable alternative to procedures performed
during a laparotomy. (Am J Vet Res 2002;
Objective—To determine the long-term effects of colposuspension
in spayed female dogs with urinary
incontinence and identify preoperative anatomic or
urodynamic measurements associated with a successful
Animals—23 client-owned spayed female dogs with
Procedure—Prior to surgery, a history was obtained,
and a physical examination, CBC, serum biochemical
analyses, urinalysis, bacterial culture of a urine sample,
vaginourethrocystography, urethral pressure profilometry,
and leak point pressure test were performed.
Colposuspension was performed, and preoperative
tests were repeated 2 months after surgery.
Clients were interviewed 2 weeks, 1 month, and 1
year after surgery.
Results—22 dogs were followed up for 1 year. Twelve
had complete urinary control 2 months after surgery,
and 3 had complete urinary control 1 year after
surgery. Dogs with normal urinary control at 2
months had an increased leak point pressure (LPP),
compared with preoperative measurements, and
their LPP was the same as normal dogs. Eight dogs
had complete urinary control, and 9 were considered
greatly improved 1 year after surgery when medical
treatment was added to the effect of colposuspension.
Client satisfaction was high, with 19 of 22 (86%)
owners being pleased with their decision to have
surgery performed. The only predictors of complete
urinary control 2 months after surgery were a more
caudal position of the external urethral opening in
relation to the pubis on preoperative radiographs and
a longer overall urethral length.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Colposuspension
alone will result in complete urinary control in
few dogs with urinary incontinence but may improve
urinary control sufficiently that owners will be
pleased. Preoperative vaginourethrocystography may
be helpful in predicting response to surgery, and the
LPP test correlates with improved urinary control.
(J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;219:770–775)
Objective—To determine long-term outcome associated
with laparoscopic-assisted gastropexy in
prevention of gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV) in
susceptible dogs and to evaluate use of
laparoscopy to correct GDV.
Animals—25 client-owned large-breed dogs.
Procedure—23 dogs susceptible to GDV were
referred as candidates for elective gastropexy. These
dogs had a history of treatment for gastric dilatation,
clinical signs of gastric dilatation, or family members
with gastric dilatation. Laparoscopic-assisted gastropexy
was performed. One year after surgery,
abdominal ultrasonography was performed to evaluate
the attachment of the stomach to the abdominal
wall. Two dogs with GDV were also treated with
laparoscopic-assisted derotation of the stomach and
Results—None of the dogs developed GDV during
the year after gastropexy, and all 20 dogs examined
ultrasonographically had an intact attachment.
Another dog was euthanatized at 11.5 months for
unrelated problems. Two dogs with GDV successfully
underwent laparoscopic-assisted gastropexy after
the stomach was repositioned.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Laparoscopicassisted
gastropexy resulted in a persisting attachment
between the stomach and abdominal wall, an
absence of GDV development, and few complications.
Dogs with a high probability for development of
GDV should be considered candidates for minimally
invasive gastropexy. Carefully selected dogs with
GDV can be treated laparoscopically. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:1576–1581)
Objective—To develop a technique for laparoscopic
gastropexy in dogs and evaluate effects on stomach
position and strength of the adhesion between the
stomach and abdominal wall.
Animals—8 healthy dogs.
Procedure—Dogs were anesthetized, and the
abdomen was insufflated with carbon dioxide. A
laparoscope was placed through a cannula inserted
on the abdominal midline caudal to the umbilicus.
Babcock forceps placed through a cannula inserted
lateral to the right margin of the rectus abdominus
muscle were used to exteriorize the pyloric antrum, a
longitudinal incision was made through the serosa
and muscular layer of the pyloric antrum, and the
seromuscular layer of the pyloric antrum was sutured
to the transversus abdominus muscle. After surgery,
positive-contrast gastrography was used to evaluate
stomach position and the onset of gastric emptying,
and ultrasonography was used to assess stomach
wall activity and mobility. Dogs were euthanatized 1
month after surgery, and tensile strength of the adhesion
Results—In all dogs, stomach position and the onset of
gastric emptying were normal 25 days after surgery, and
the pyloric antrum was firmly attached to the abdominal
wall 30 days after surgery. Mean ± SD ultimate load of
the adhesion in tension was 106.5 ± 45.6 N.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The laparoscopic
gastropexy technique described in the present
study could be performed quickly and easily by an
experienced surgeon, resulted in a strong fibrous
adhesion between the stomach and abdominal wall,
and appeared to cause minimal stress to the dogs.
(Am J Vet Res 2001;62:871–875)
Objective—To develop a laparoscopic-assisted technique
for cystopexy in dogs.
Animals—8 healthy male dogs, 7 healthy female
dogs, and 3 client-owned dogs with retroflexion of
the urinary bladder secondary to perineal herniation.
Procedure—Dogs were anesthetized, and positive
pressure ventilation was provided. In the healthy male
dogs, the serosal surface of the bladder was sutured
to the abdominal wall. In the healthy female dogs, the
serosa and muscular layer of the bladder were incised
and sutured to the aponeurosis of the external and
internal abdominal oblique muscles. Dogs were monitored
daily for 30 days after surgery.
Results—All dogs recovered rapidly after surgery and
voided normally. In the female dogs, results of urodynamic
(leak point pressure and urethral pressure profilometry)
and contrast radiographic studies performed
30 days after surgery were similar to results obtained
before surgery. Cystopexy was successful in all 3 client-owned
dogs, but 1 of these dogs was subsequently
euthanatized because of leakage from a colopexy performed
at the same time as the cystopexy.
Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—The laparoscopic-assisted cystopexy technique was quick, easy
to perform, and not associated with urinary tract
infection or abnormalities of urination. (Am J Vet Res