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Abstract

Objective—To develop laparoscopic-assisted techniques for enterostomy feeding tube placement and full-thickness biopsy of the jejunum in dogs.

Animals—15 healthy dogs.

Procedure—Dogs were anesthetized, and positive pressure ventilation was provided. A trocar cannula for the laparoscope was inserted on the ventral midline caudal to the umbilicus. For enterostomy tube placement, a second trocar cannula was placed lateral to the right rectus abdominis muscle, and a Babcock forceps was used to grasp the duodenum and elevate it to the incision made for the cannula. The duodenum was sutured to the abdominal wall, and a feeding tube was inserted. For jejunal biopsy, a third trocar cannula was placed lateral to the left rectus abdominis muscle. A portion of jejunum was elevated to the incision for the second or third cannula, and a full-thickness biopsy specimen was obtained. A second specimen was obtained from another portion of jejunum, and retention sutures for the 2 biopsy sites were tied so that serosal surfaces of the biopsy sites were apposed to each other. Dogs were euthanatized 30 days after surgery.

Results—The enterostomy tube was properly positioned and functional in all 8 dogs that underwent laparoscopic-assisted enterostomy tube placement, and sufficient samples for histologic examination were obtained from all 7 dogs that underwent laparoscopic-assisted jejunal biopsy. None of the dogs had any identifiable problems after surgery.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that in dogs, laparoscopic-assisted procedures for enterostomy tube placement and jejunal biopsy are an acceptable alternative to procedures performed during a laparotomy. (Am J Vet Res 2002; 63:1313–1319)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the long-term effects of colposuspension in spayed female dogs with urinary incontinence and identify preoperative anatomic or urodynamic measurements associated with a successful outcome.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—23 client-owned spayed female dogs with urinary incontinence.

Procedure—Prior to surgery, a history was obtained, and a physical examination, CBC, serum biochemical analyses, urinalysis, bacterial culture of a urine sample, vaginourethrocystography, urethral pressure profilometry, and leak point pressure test were performed. Colposuspension was performed, and preoperative tests were repeated 2 months after surgery. Clients were interviewed 2 weeks, 1 month, and 1 year after surgery.

Results—22 dogs were followed up for 1 year. Twelve had complete urinary control 2 months after surgery, and 3 had complete urinary control 1 year after surgery. Dogs with normal urinary control at 2 months had an increased leak point pressure (LPP), compared with preoperative measurements, and their LPP was the same as normal dogs. Eight dogs had complete urinary control, and 9 were considered greatly improved 1 year after surgery when medical treatment was added to the effect of colposuspension. Client satisfaction was high, with 19 of 22 (86%) owners being pleased with their decision to have surgery performed. The only predictors of complete urinary control 2 months after surgery were a more caudal position of the external urethral opening in relation to the pubis on preoperative radiographs and a longer overall urethral length.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Colposuspension alone will result in complete urinary control in few dogs with urinary incontinence but may improve urinary control sufficiently that owners will be pleased. Preoperative vaginourethrocystography may be helpful in predicting response to surgery, and the LPP test correlates with improved urinary control. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;219:770–775)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine long-term outcome associated with laparoscopic-assisted gastropexy in prevention of gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV) in susceptible dogs and to evaluate use of laparoscopy to correct GDV.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—25 client-owned large-breed dogs.

Procedure—23 dogs susceptible to GDV were referred as candidates for elective gastropexy. These dogs had a history of treatment for gastric dilatation, clinical signs of gastric dilatation, or family members with gastric dilatation. Laparoscopic-assisted gastropexy was performed. One year after surgery, abdominal ultrasonography was performed to evaluate the attachment of the stomach to the abdominal wall. Two dogs with GDV were also treated with laparoscopic-assisted derotation of the stomach and gastropexy.

Results—None of the dogs developed GDV during the year after gastropexy, and all 20 dogs examined ultrasonographically had an intact attachment. Another dog was euthanatized at 11.5 months for unrelated problems. Two dogs with GDV successfully underwent laparoscopic-assisted gastropexy after the stomach was repositioned.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Laparoscopicassisted gastropexy resulted in a persisting attachment between the stomach and abdominal wall, an absence of GDV development, and few complications. Dogs with a high probability for development of GDV should be considered candidates for minimally invasive gastropexy. Carefully selected dogs with GDV can be treated laparoscopically. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:1576–1581)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To develop a technique for laparoscopic gastropexy in dogs and evaluate effects on stomach position and strength of the adhesion between the stomach and abdominal wall.

Animals—8 healthy dogs.

Procedure—Dogs were anesthetized, and the abdomen was insufflated with carbon dioxide. A laparoscope was placed through a cannula inserted on the abdominal midline caudal to the umbilicus. Babcock forceps placed through a cannula inserted lateral to the right margin of the rectus abdominus muscle were used to exteriorize the pyloric antrum, a longitudinal incision was made through the serosa and muscular layer of the pyloric antrum, and the seromuscular layer of the pyloric antrum was sutured to the transversus abdominus muscle. After surgery, positive-contrast gastrography was used to evaluate stomach position and the onset of gastric emptying, and ultrasonography was used to assess stomach wall activity and mobility. Dogs were euthanatized 1 month after surgery, and tensile strength of the adhesion was tested.

Results—In all dogs, stomach position and the onset of gastric emptying were normal 25 days after surgery, and the pyloric antrum was firmly attached to the abdominal wall 30 days after surgery. Mean ± SD ultimate load of the adhesion in tension was 106.5 ± 45.6 N.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The laparoscopic gastropexy technique described in the present study could be performed quickly and easily by an experienced surgeon, resulted in a strong fibrous adhesion between the stomach and abdominal wall, and appeared to cause minimal stress to the dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:871–875)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To develop a laparoscopic-assisted technique for cystopexy in dogs.

Animals—8 healthy male dogs, 7 healthy female dogs, and 3 client-owned dogs with retroflexion of the urinary bladder secondary to perineal herniation.

Procedure—Dogs were anesthetized, and positive pressure ventilation was provided. In the healthy male dogs, the serosal surface of the bladder was sutured to the abdominal wall. In the healthy female dogs, the serosa and muscular layer of the bladder were incised and sutured to the aponeurosis of the external and internal abdominal oblique muscles. Dogs were monitored daily for 30 days after surgery.

Results—All dogs recovered rapidly after surgery and voided normally. In the female dogs, results of urodynamic (leak point pressure and urethral pressure profilometry) and contrast radiographic studies performed 30 days after surgery were similar to results obtained before surgery. Cystopexy was successful in all 3 client-owned dogs, but 1 of these dogs was subsequently euthanatized because of leakage from a colopexy performed at the same time as the cystopexy.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—The laparoscopic-assisted cystopexy technique was quick, easy to perform, and not associated with urinary tract infection or abnormalities of urination. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1226–1231).

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research