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Objective—To determine whether tepoxalin alters kidney function in dogs with chronic kidney disease (CKD).

Animals—16 dogs with CKD (International Renal Interest Society stage 2 or 3) and osteoarthritis.

Procedures—Kidney function was assessed via serum biochemical analysis, urinalysis, urine protein-to-creatinine concentration ratio, urine γ-glutamyl transpeptidase-to-creatinine concentration ratio, iohexol plasma clearance, and indirect blood pressure measurement twice before treatment. Dogs received tepoxalin (10 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h) for 28 days (acute phase; n = 16) and an additional 6 months (chronic phase; 10). Recheck examinations were performed weekly (acute phase) and at 1, 3, and 6 months (chronic phase). Kidney function variables were analyzed via repeated-measures ANOVA.

Results—There was no difference over time for any variables in dogs completing both phases of the study. Adverse drug events (ADEs) resulting in discontinuation of tepoxalin administration included increased serum creatinine concentration (1 dog; week 1), collapse (1 dog; week 1), increased liver enzyme activities (1 dog; week 4), vomiting and diarrhea (1 dog; week 8), hematochezia (1 dog; week 24), and gastrointestinal ulceration or perforation (1 dog; week 26). Preexisting medical conditions and concomitant drug use may have contributed to ADEs. Kidney function was not affected in the latter 5 dogs. Discontinuation of tepoxalin administration stabilized kidney function in the former dog and resolved the ADEs in 4 of the 5 latter dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Tepoxalin may be used, with appropriate monitoring, in dogs with International Renal Interest Society stage 2 or 3 CKD and osteoarthritis.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To evaluate the use of dipstick, sulfosalicylic acid (SSA), and urine protein-tocreatinine ratio (UP:C) methods for use in detection of canine and feline albuminuria.

Design—Evaluation study.

Sample Population—599 canine and 347 feline urine samples.

Procedures—Urine was analyzed by use of dipstick, SSA, and UP:C methods; results were compared with those for a species-specific ELISA to determine sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value, and positive and negative likelihood ratios.

Results—Positive results for dipstick and SSA tests (trace reaction or greater) in canine urine had moderate specificity (dipstick, 81.2%; SSA, 73.3%) and poor PPV (dipstick, 34.0%; SSA, 41.8%). Values improved when stronger positive results (≥ 2+) for the dipstick and SSA tests were compared with ELISA results (specificity, 98.9% and 99.0% for the urine dipstick and SSA tests, respectively; PPV, 90.7% and 90.2% for the dipstick and SSA tests, respectively). Data obtained for cats revealed poor specificity (dipstick, 11.0%; SSA, 25.4%) and PPV (dipstick, 55.6%; SSA, 46.9%). Values improved slightly when stronger positive test results (≥ 2+) were used (specificity, 80.0% and 94.2% for the dipstick and SSA tests, respectively; PPV, 63.5% and 65.2% for the dipstick and SSA tests, respectively). The UP:C had high specificity for albuminuria in dogs and cats (99.7% and 99.2%, respectively) but low sensitivity (28.7% and 2.0%, respectively).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Caution should be used when interpreting a positive test result of a dipstick or SSA test for canine or feline albuminuria.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To assess feasibility of the use of a dynamic viscoelastic coagulometer on chicken blood and compare coagulation variables for fresh whole blood and sodium citrate–preserved whole blood as well as effects of 3 coagulation activators on blood from chickens.


Blood samples from 30 hens.


Chickens were allowed to rest undisturbed for 1 hour. A blood sample was collected from an ulnar vein; 1.4 mL was analyzed immediately, and 1.8 mL was mixed with sodium citrate and subsequently recalcified and analyzed. A separate coagulation activator (glass beads, kaolin clay, or tissue factor) was in each of the 2 channels of the analyzer. Chickens were allowed a 1-hour rest period, and another blood sample was collected from the contralateral ulnar vein; it was processed in the same manner as for the first sample, except both channels of the analyzer contained the same coagulation activator.


Compared with fresh samples, citrated samples had higher values for activated clotting time and platelet function and lower clotting rates. Intra-assay coefficients of variation of coagulation profiles for citrated samples were markedly greater than the limit of 10%, whereas values for fresh samples were close to or < 10%.


Results suggested that use of a dynamic viscoelastic coagulometer on chicken blood was feasible and that analysis of fresh whole blood from healthy chickens provided results with less variability than did analysis of citrated blood. Samples preserved with sodium citrate were associated with significant relative hypocoagulability, compared with results for fresh blood.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research