PROCEDURES Tear production was measured with the phenol red thread test (PRTT), modified Schirmer tear test (mSTT), and endodontic absorbent paper points tear test (EAPPTT). The IOP was measured by use of rebound tonometry. Correlations between test results and body weight were evaluated.
RESULTS Mean ± SD values for the IOP, PRTT, EAPPTT, mSTT, HPFL, and blink frequency for all 80 eyes were 4.55 ± 1.33 mm Hg, 5.57 ± 1.51 mm/15 s, 4.52 ± 1.55 mm/min, 2.07 ± 0.97 mm/min, 5.84 ± 0.45 mm, and 1.68 ± 0.43 blinks/min, respectively. For all variables, values did not differ significantly between the right and left eyes or between males and females. There was no correlation between measured variables and body weight.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results for this study provided information on values for the IOP, PRTT, mSTT, EAPPTT, HPFL, and eye blink frequency in healthy Syrian hamsters. It was important to determine reference intervals for this species because they commonly are kept as pets or used as research animals.
To determine effects of diurnal variation and anesthetic agents on intraocular pressure (IOP) in Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus).
90 healthy adult Syrian hamsters (45 males and 45 females).
IOP was measured with a rebound tonometer. In phase 1, IOP was measured in all hamsters 3 times during a 24-hour period (7 am, 3 pm, and 11 pm). In phase 2, hamsters were assigned to 5 groups (18 animals [9 males and 9 females]/group). Each group received an anesthetic agent or combination of anesthetic agents (ketamine hydrochloride, xylazine hydrochloride, diazepam, ketamine-diazepam [KD], or ketamine-xylazine [KX] groups) administered via the IP route. The IOP was measured before (time 0 [baseline]) and 10, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 minutes after administration of drugs.
Mean ± SD IOP values were 2.58 ± 0.87 mm Hg, 4.46 ± 1.58 mm Hg, and 5.96 ± 1.23 mm Hg at 7 am, 3 pm, and 11 pm, respectively. Mean baseline IOP was 6.25 ± 0.28 mm Hg, 6.12 ± 0.23 mm Hg, 5.75 ± 0.64 mm Hg, 5.12 ± 1.40 mm Hg, and 4.50 ± 1.30 mm Hg for the ketamine, xylazine, diazepam, KD, and KX groups, respectively. A significant decrease in IOP, compared with baseline IOP, was detected in only the KX group at 30, 60, and 90 minutes after drug administration.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Maximum IOP in Syrian hamsters was detected at night. The ketamine-xylazine anesthetic combination significantly decreased IOP in Syrian hamsters.
To evaluate the effects of long-term (30-day) oral administration of melatonin on tear production, intraocular pressure (IOP), and concentration of melatonin in the tears and serum of healthy dogs.
20 healthy sexually intact adult male dogs.
10 dogs were given melatonin (0.3 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h, administered in food at 9 am), and 10 dogs were given a placebo. Tear and serum melatonin concentrations, IOP, and tear production (determined with a Schirmer tear test) were recorded before (baseline) and 30 minutes, 3 hours, and 5 hours after administration of melatonin or the placebo on day 1 and 30 minutes after administration of melatonin or the placebo on days 8, 15, and 30.
Data collection time had significant effects on tear production, IOP, and tear melatonin concentration but not on serum melatonin concentration. Treatment (melatonin vs placebo) had a significant effect on tear melatonin concentration, but not on tear production, IOP, or serum melatonin concentration; however, tear melatonin concentration was significantly different between groups only 30 minutes after administration on day 1 and not at other times.
In healthy dogs, long-term administration of melatonin at a dosage of 0.3 mg/kg, PO, every 24 hours did not have any clinically important effects on tear production, IOP, or serum or tear melatonin concentrations.