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  • Author or Editor: Seppo Saari x
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Objective—To determine reference values for cytologic examination results of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and to investigate effects of repeated lavages on pulmonary health and on results of cytologic examination of BALF in dogs.

Animals—16 healthy adult Beagles.

Procedure—All dogs underwent pulmonary lavage to obtain BALF. Eleven dogs were repeatedly lavaged 6 times at 5– to 7–week intervals. Analyses for total and differential cell counts and for viability of cells before and after cell processing were performed. Arterial blood gas analysis before and after bronchoalveolar lavage was used to study the safety of the lavage procedure. Histologic and radiologic examinations were used to study effects of repeated lavages on pulmonary health.

Results—Mean (± SD) cell count was 104 ± 69 cells/µl, comprising 75 ± 7% alveolar macrophages, 13 ± 6% lymphocytes, 5 ± 4% neutrophils, 4 ± 5% eosinophils, 2 ± 2% mast cells, 0.6 ± 0.7% epithelial cells, and 0.3 ± 0.4% plasma cells. Centrifugation of samples and washing of cells caused significant cell loss (59 ± 13%). Repeated lavages did not cause significant variations in cell counts of BALF or results of arterial blood gas analysis, thoracic radiography, or histologic examination of pulmonary specimens. Only a moderate, although significant, decrease in arterial oxygen content was observed after bronchoalveolar lavage.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Analysis indicated that several lavages performed at 5– to 7–week intervals can safely and reliably be used to study the kinetics of pathologic processes in pulmonary tissues or for evaluation of therapeutic efficacy. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:13–16)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


To determine prevalence, colonization density, and distribution of helicobacters and gastric histologic findings in healthy dogs and dogs with signs of gastritis; to evaluate association of colonization density and gastric inflammation; and to compare the number of Helicobacter spp with degree of inflammation.


Cross-sectional prevalence survey.


25 healthy dogs and 21 dogs with signs of gastritis.


During endoscopy, gastric mucosal biopsy specimens were obtained from healthy and affected client-owned dogs. Histologic and cytologic evaluation and results of a urease test were used for detecting helicobacters, which were identified definitively by use of transmission electron microscopy and bacterial culture.


Helicobacters were detected in all 25 healthy and 20 of 21 affected dogs. Cytologic examination was a more sensitive method than histologic examination or the urease test. Helicobacters were found least frequently and in fewest number in the antrum in both groups of dogs. Gastric inflammation was evident in both groups of dogs and did not differ significantly between groups. A significant association was not detected between colonization density or the number of Helicobacter spp and degree of gastric inflammation. In both groups, H bizzozeronii, H felis, and H salomonis were cultured.

Clinical Implications

Histologically verified chronic gastritis is common in dogs with signs of gastritis as well as in healthy dogs. Colonization density of helicobacters was not associated with degree of gastric inflammation in the dogs of our study. It remains to be determined whether certain strains of Helicobacter spp can induce gastritis in dogs. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998;213:1767–1774)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association