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  • Author or Editor: Seonmi Kang x
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Abstract

OBJECTIVE To compare morphology of the ciliary cleft (CC) region in dogs after topical administration of latanoprost, pilocarpine, or a combination of latanoprost and pilocarpine.

ANIMALS 6 Beagles.

PROCEDURES A prospective 4-phase crossover study with washout periods was performed. Latanoprost (phase L), pilocarpine (phase P), pilocarpine followed by latanoprost (phase PL), and latanoprost followed by pilocarpine (phase LP) were administered to the right eye. Artificial tears were administered to the left eye (control eye). For each phase, pupil diameter and intraocular pressure (IOP) were measured and ultrasonographic biomicroscopy was performed 2 hours after topical treatment. Angle opening distance (AOD), ciliary cleft width (CCW), ciliary cleft length (CCL), and ciliary cleft area (CCA) were evaluated.

RESULTS All treated eyes had marked miosis without significant differences in pupil diameter among phases. Significant IOP reductions were detected for all phases, except phase P. The AOD and CCA were significantly increased in all phases for treated eyes, compared with results for control eyes. The CCW was significantly increased in phases P, PL, and LP; CCL was significantly increased in phases PL and LP. Comparison of treated eyes among phases revealed that CCW differed significantly between phases L and P and between phases L and PL.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Prostaglandin-mediated and cholinergic-mediated miosis caused variations in CC configurations. When latanoprost and pilocarpine were used in combination, the first drug administered determined the cleft morphology, which was not fully reversed by the second drug. The CC morphology did not fully explain IOP reductions.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate whether the administration of 2% dorzolamide ophthalmic solution in dogs undergoing ophthalmic surgery is associated with perianesthetic metabolic acidosis.

ANIMALS

60 dogs, with or without dorzolamide administration, underwent arterial blood gas analysis immediately after anesthesia for ophthalmic surgery between 2019 and 2022; a total of 60 surgeries were evaluated.

METHODS

This was a retrospective cross-sectional study. Logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate the association between the administration of 2% dorzolamide ophthalmic solution in dogs and the development of metabolic acidosis. Additionally, the influence of various potential risk factors, including age, body weight, sex, use of topical or systemic NSAIDs, and preoperative medications on the occurrence of metabolic acidosis, was evaluated.

RESULTS

A significant association was found between the use of 2% dorzolamide ophthalmic solution and perianesthetic metabolic acidosis (OR, 6.79; 95% CI, 2.00 to 23.02; P = .002). Furthermore, topical dorzolamide administration was significantly associated with both perianesthetic hypokalemia (OR, 3.52; 95% CI, 1.11 to 11.20; P = .033) and perianesthetic hyperchloremia (OR, 9.25; 95% CI, 1.71 to 50.01; P = .010).

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The use of 2% dorzolamide ophthalmic solution is associated with perianesthetic metabolic acidosis, hypokalemia, and hyperchloremia in dogs. It is prudent to be aware of these risks, especially before anesthesia.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To assess the characteristics of blebs formed after Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) surgery in dogs using ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) and to analyze their correlation with postoperative intraocular pressure (IOP).

ANIMALS

16 eyes (13 dogs) were diagnosed with primary angle-closure glaucoma and were followed up after AGV surgery from June 2021 to September 2023.

METHODS

In this prospective study, UBM examinations were performed to assess bleb characteristics, including bleb wall thickness and reflectivity. IOP at the time of UBM imaging and the duration from AGV surgery to UBM imaging were recorded. Histological examination of an enucleated eye removed due to uncontrolled IOP leading to blindness was also conducted.

RESULTS

A significant correlation was observed between IOP and relative reflectivity (Pearson r = 0.60; P = .01), and a negative correlation was observed between bleb wall thickness and relative reflectivity (Pearson r = −0.72; P = .002). No significant correlation was observed between the duration from AGV surgery to UBM imaging and either bleb wall thickness or relative reflectivity, respectively. Histological examination of the enucleated eye revealed collagen-rich fibrous encapsulation of the bleb wall, including myofibroblasts that exhibited positive α-smooth muscle actin immunostaining.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

In dogs that underwent AGV surgery, less dense, thick-walled blebs on UBM tended to maintain IOP within the normal range. However, denser, thinner-walled blebs showed IOP levels above the normal range despite the use of antiglaucoma medications. UBM is a useful tool for evaluating bleb characteristics and their influence on IOP regulation after AGV surgery in dogs.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research