Objective—To evaluate effects of a single dose of enrofloxacin (5 mg/kg, IV) on body temperature and tracheobronchial neutrophil count in healthy Thoroughbreds premedicated with interferon-α and undergoing long-distance transportation.
Animals—32 healthy Thoroughbreds.
Procedures—All horses received interferon-α (0.5 U/kg, sublingually, q 24 h) as an immunologic stimulant for 2 days before transportation and on the day of transportation. Horses were randomly assigned to receive enrofloxacin (5 mg/kg, IV, once; enrofloxacin group) or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (50 mL, IV, once; control group) ≤ 1 hour before being transported 1,210 km via commercial vans (duration, approx 26 hours). Before and after transportation, clinical examination, measurement of temperature per rectum, and hematologic analysis were performed for all horses; a tracheobronchial aspirate was collected for neutrophil quantification in 12 horses (6/group). Horses received antimicrobial treatment after transportation if deemed necessary by the attending clinician.
Results—No adverse effects were associated with treatment. After transportation, WBC count and serum amyloid A concentration in peripheral blood samples and neutrophil counts in tracheobronchial aspirates were significantly lower in horses of the enrofloxacin group than in untreated control horses. Fever (rectal temperature, ≥ 38.5°C) after transportation was detected in 3 of 16 enrofloxacin group horses and 9 of 16 control horses; additional antimicrobial treatment was required in 2 horses in the enrofloxacin group and 7 horses in the control group.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In horses premedicated with interferon-α, enrofloxacin appeared to provide better protection against fever and lower respiratory tract inflammation than did saline solution.
Objective—To determine the influence of transportation by road and air on heart rate (HR) and HR variability (HRV) in horses.
Animals—6 healthy horses.
Procedures—ECG recordings were obtained from horses before (quarantine with stall rest [Q]; 24 hours) and during a journey that included transportation by road (RT; 4.5 hours), waiting on the ground in an air stall (W; 5.5 hours), and transportation by air (AT; 11 hours); HR was determined, and HRV indices of autonomic nervous activity (low-frequency [LF; 0.01 to 0.07 Hz] and high-frequency [HF; 0.07 to 0.6 Hz] power) were calculated.
Results—Mean ± SD HRs during Q, RT, W, and AT were 38.9 ± 1.5 beats/min, 41.7 ± 5.6 beats/min, 41.5 ± 4.3 beats/min, and 48.8 ± 5.6 beats/min, respectively; HR during AT was significantly higher than HR during Q. The LF power was significantly higher during Q (3,454 ± 1,087 milliseconds2) and AT (3,101 ± 567 milliseconds2) than it was during RT (1,824 ± 432 milliseconds2) and W (2,072 ± 616 milliseconds2). During Q, RT, W, and AT, neither HF powers (range, 509 to 927 milliseconds2) nor LF:HF ratios (range, 4.1 to 6.2) differed significantly. The HR during RT was highly correlated with LF power (R2 = 0.979), and HR during AT was moderately correlated with the LF:HF ratio (R2 = 0.477).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In horses, HR and HRV indices during RT and AT differed, suggesting that exposure to different stressors results in different autonomic nervous influences on HR.
Objective—To determine the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of minocycline in horses.
Animals—5 healthy Thoroughbred mares for the pharmacokinetic experiment and 6 healthy Thoroughbred mares for the tissue distribution experiment.
Procedures—Each mare was given 2.2 mg of minocycline hydrochloride/kg, IV. Blood samples were collected once before minocycline administration (0 hours) and 10 times within 48 hours after administration in the pharmacokinetics study, and 24 tissue samples were obtained at 0.5 and 3 hours in the distribution study.
Results—No adverse effects were observed in any of the mares after minocycline administration. The mean ± SD elimination half-life was 7.70 ± 1.91 hours. The total body clearance was 0.16 ± 0.04 L/h/kg, and the volume of distribution at steady state was 1.53 ± 0.09 L/kg. The percentage of plasma protein binding was 68.1 ± 2.6%. Plasma concentration of free minocycline was 0.12 μg/mL at 12 hours. Minocycline was not detected in brain tissue, CSF or aqueous humor at 0.5 hours; however, it was found in all tissues, except in the aqueous humor, at 3 hours.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Clearance of minocycline in healthy mares was greater than that reported for humans. For effective treatment of infections with common equine pathogens, it will be necessary to administer minocycline at a dosage of 2.2 mg/kg, IV, every 12 hours. This drug could be useful for infections in many tissues, including the CNS. The pharmacokinetic and tissue distribution data should aid in the appropriate use of minocycline in horses. (Am J Vet Res 2010;71:1062–1066)
To determine plasma pharmacokinetics of metronidazole and imipenem following administration of a single dose PO (metronidazole, 15 mg/kg) or IV (imipenem, 10 mg/kg) in healthy Thoroughbreds and simulate pleural fluid concentrations following multiple dose administration every 8 hours.
4 healthy Thoroughbreds.
Metronidazole and imipenem were administered, and samples of plasma and pleural fluid were collected at predetermined time points. Minimum concentrations of metronidazole and imipenem that inhibited growth of 90% of isolates (MIC90), including 22 clinical Bacteroides isolates from horses with pleuropneumonia, were calculated. For the computer simulation, the target ratio for area under the pleural fluid concentration-versus-time curve during 24 hours to the MIC90 for metronidazole was > 70, and the target percentage of time per day that the pleural fluid concentration of imipenem exceeded the MIC90 was > 50%.
Mean ± SD pleural fluid concentrations of metronidazole and imipenem were 12.7 ± 3.3 μg/mL and 12.1 ± 0.9 μg/mL, respectively, 1 hour after administration and 4.9 ± 0.85 μg/mL and 0.3 ± 0.08 μg/mL, respectively, 8 hours after administration. For both antimicrobials, concentrations in the pleural fluid and plasma were similar. The ratio for area under the pleural fluid concentration-versus-time curve during 24 hours to the MIC90 for metronidazole was 84.9, and the percentage of time per day the pleural fluid concentration of imipenem exceeded the MIC90 was 70.9%.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Results suggested that administration of metronidazole (15 mg/kg, PO, q 8 h) or imipenem (10 mg/kg, IV, q 8 h) resulted in their accumulation in the pleural fluid in healthy horses and concentrations were likely to be effective for the treatment of pneumonia and pleuropneumonia caused by Bacteroides spp.
Objective—To evaluate whether administering a tart cherry juice blend (TCJB) prior to exercise would reduce skeletal and cardiac muscle damage by decreasing the inflammatory and oxidative stress response to exercise in horses.
Procedures—Horses were randomly allocated into 2 groups in a crossover study with a 2-week washout period and orally administered either TCJB or a placebo solution (1.42 L, twice daily) in a double-masked protocol for 2 weeks prior to a stepwise incremental exercise protocol. Horses were tested for serum activities of creatine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and concentrations of cardiac troponin I (cTnI), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS; an indicator of oxidative stress), and serum amyloid A (SAA; an indicator of inflammation). To ensure that treatment would not result in positive results of an equine drug-screening protocol, serum samples obtained from each horse prior to and after 2 weeks of administration of TCJB or the placebo solution were tested.
Results—All horses had negative results of drug screening at both sample times. The exercise protocol resulted in a significant increase in TBARS concentration, SAA concentration, and serum AST activity in all horses. Administration of TCJB or placebo solution was not associated with an effect on malondialdehyde or SAA concentrations. However, administration of TCJB was associated with less serum activity of AST, compared with administration of placebo solution.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Administration of TCJB may diminish muscle damage induced by exercise.
Objective—To evaluate sevoflurane as an inhalation
anesthetic for thoracotomy in horses.
Animals—18 horses between 2 and 15 years old.
Procedure—4 horses were used to develop surgical
techniques and were euthanatized at the end of the
procedure. The remaining 14 horses were selected,
because they had an episode of bleeding from their
lungs during strenuous exercise. General anesthesia
was induced with xylazine (1.0 mg/kg of body weight,
IV) followed by ketamine (2.0 mg/kg, IV). Anesthesia
was maintained with sevoflurane in oxygen delivered
via a circle anesthetic breathing circuit. Ventilation
was controlled to maintain PaCO2 at approximately 45
mm Hg. Neuromuscular blocking drugs (succinylcholine
or atracurium) were administered to eliminate
spontaneous breathing efforts and to facilitate
surgery. Cardiovascular performance was monitored
and supported as indicated.
Results—2 of the 14 horses not euthanatized died as
a result of ventricular fibrillation. Mean (± SD) duration
of anesthesia was 304.9 ± 64.1 minutes for horses
that survived and 216.7 ± 85.5 minutes for horses
that were euthanatized or died. Our subjective opinion
was that sevoflurane afforded good control of
anesthetic depth during induction, maintenance, and
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Administration
of sevoflurane together with neuromuscular
blocking drugs provides stable and easily controllable
anesthetic management of horses for elective thoracotomy
and cardiac manipulation. (Am J Vet Res