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  • Author or Editor: Sean Majoy x
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Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine whether critically ill dogs had increased platelet activation and whether the proportion of activated platelets correlated with severity of illness.

ANIMALS 82 dogs in the intensive care unit of a veterinary teaching hospital and 24 healthy control dogs.

PROCEDURES Flow cytometry with monoclonal mouse anti-human CD61 and CD62 antibodies in resting and ADP-treated samples and kaolin-activated thromboelastography were used to compare platelet activation in blood samples of critically ill and control dogs. Serum antithrombin, von Willebrand factor, fibrinogen, and activated protein C concentrations; prothrombin time (PT); and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) were measured. Revised survival prediction index, acute patient physiology and laboratory evaluation, systemic inflammatory response syndrome, and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome scores were used to estimate severity of illness. Severity of illness scores and platelet activation measurements were compared with survival time and duration and cost of hospitalization.

RESULTS Critically ill and control dogs had no differences in platelet activation for non–ADP-treated samples measured. Critically ill dogs had significantly increased platelet activation in response to 2, 6, and 10μM ADP. Critically ill dogs had significantly increased maximum amplitude, α angle, and global clot strength and significantly decreased clot formation time. Critically ill dogs had significantly increased fibrinogen concentration, PT, and aPTT and significantly decreased antithrombin concentration. Survivors and nonsurvivors had similar flow cytometry and thromboelastography values. Three dogs developed macrothrombosis.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In this study, critically ill dogs had hyperreactive platelets, which may have contributed to a high incidence of hypercoagulability in this patient population.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate clinical, serologic, parasitological, and histologic outcomes of dogs with naturally occurring Trypanosoma cruzi infection treated for 12 months with amiodarone and itraconazole.

ANIMALS

121 dogs from southern Texas and southern Louisiana.

PROCEDURES

Treatment group dogs (n = 105) received a combination of amiodarone hydrochloride (approx 7.5 mg/kg [3.4 mg/lb], PO, q 24 h, with or without a loading dosage protocol) and itraconazole (approx 10 mg/kg [4.5 mg/lb], PO, q 24 h, adjusted to maintain a plasma concentration of 1 to 2 μg/mL) for 12 months. Control group dogs (n = 16) received no antitrypanosomal medications. Serologic assays for anti-T cruzi antibodies, PCR assays for T cruzi DNA in blood, and physical evaluations were performed 1, 6, 9, 12, and 24 months after study initiation. Adverse events were recorded. Outcomes of interest were recorded and compared between groups.

RESULTS

86 of 105 treatment group dogs and 8 of 16 control group dogs survived and completed the study (5/19 and 6/7 deaths of treatment and control group dogs, respectively, were attributed to T cruzi infection). Mean survival time until death attributed to T cruzi was longer (23.19 vs 15.64 months) for the treatment group. Results of PCR assays were negative for all (n = 92) tested treatment group dogs (except for 1 dog at 1 time point) from 6 to 24 months after study initiation. Clinical improvement in ≥ 1 clinical sign was observed in 53 of 54 and 0 of 10 treatment and control group dogs, respectively; adverse drug events were minor and reversible.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results suggested efficacy of this trypanocidal drug combination for the treatment of T cruzi infection in dogs.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association