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  • Author or Editor: Sean E. Hulsebosch x
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To report the fluoroscopic removal or repositioning of urinary tract implants in dogs and cats by use of an endovascular snare system (ESS) and to report procedural usefulness and complications in dogs and cats.


3 cats and 14 dogs.


A medical records review was performed to identify dogs and cats that underwent removal or repositioning of urinary tract foreign bodies or implants by use of an ESS with fluoroscopic guidance at a veterinary teaching hospital from 2013 to 2019.


Dogs had a median weight of 25 kg (55 lb) with a range of 3.5 to 60.6 kg (7.7 to 133.3 lb), and cats had a median weight of 5 kg (11 lb) with a range of 4.2 to 5.4 kg (9.2 to 11.9 lb). By use of an ESS, 12 patients (2 cats and 10 dogs) underwent transurethral retrieval of retained vesicourethral implants or ureteral stents, 2 dogs underwent transurethral ureteral stent repositioning, 1 cat and 2 dogs underwent transnephric retrieval of ureteral stents, and 1 dog underwent cystoscopic-assisted transureteral ureteral stent retrieval. All procedures were successfully performed, and there were no associated procedural complications.


Retained vesicourethral implants or ureteral stents were successfully retrieved by use of an ESS in dogs and cats transurethrally or with an open or percutaneous transnephric approach and fluoroscopic guidance. These techniques should be considered as an alternative or adjunct to more invasive methods for implant retrieval or manipulation.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association