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- Author or Editor: Scott Wilkie x
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Objective—To determine concentrations of marbofloxacin in alveolar macrophages (AMs) and epithelial lining fluid (ELF) and compare those concentrations with plasma concentrations in healthy dogs.
Animals—12 adult mixed-breed and purebred hounds.
Procedure—10 dogs received orally administered marbofloxacin at a dosage of 2.75 mg/kg every 24 hours for 5 days. Two dogs served as nontreated controls. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage procedures were performed while dogs were anesthetized with propofol, approximately 6 hours after the fifth dose. The concentrations of marbofloxacin in plasma and bronchoalveolar fluid (cell and supernatant fractions) were determined by use of high-performance liquid chromatography with detection of fluorescence.
Results—Mean ± SD plasma marbofloxacin concentrations 2 and 6 hours after the fifth dose were 2.36 ± 0.52 µg/mL and 1.81 ± 0.21 µg/mL, respectively. Mean ± SD marbofloxacin concentration 6 hours after the fifth dose in AMs (37.43 ± 24.61 µg/mL) was significantly greater than that in plasma (1.81 ± 0.21 µg/mL) and ELF (0.82 ± 0.34 µg/mL), resulting in a mean AM concentration-to-plasma concentration ratio of 20.4, a mean AM:ELF ratio of 60.8, and a mean ELF-to-plasma ratio of 0.46. Marbofloxacin was not detected in any samples from control dogs.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Marbofloxacin concentrations in AMs were greater than the mean inhibitory concentrations of major bacterial pathogens in dogs. Results indicated that marbofloxacin accumulates in AMs at concentrations exceeding those reached in plasma and ELF. The accumulation of marbofloxacin in AMs may facilitate treatment for susceptible intracellular pathogens or infections associated with pulmonary macrophage infiltration. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1770–1774)
Objective—To document blood nitric oxide concentrations in the portal vein and systemic circulation in a rat model of acute portal hypertension and compare values with a control group and a sham surgical group.
Animals—30 rats; 10 controls (group 1), 10 sham surgical (group 2), and 10 rats with surgically induced acute portal hypertension (group 3).
Procedure—Following induction of anesthesia, catheters were placed surgically in the carotid artery, jugular, and portal veins of group 2 and 3 rats and in the carotid artery and jugular vein of group 1 rats. Baseline heart and respiratory rates, rectal temperature, and vascular pressure measurements were obtained, and blood was drawn from all catheters for baseline nitric oxide (NO) concentrations. Acute portal hypertension was induced in the group 3 rats by tying a partially occluding suture around the portal vein and a 22-gauge catheter. The catheter was then removed, resulting in a repeatable degree of portal vein impingement. After catheter placement, all variables were remeasured at 15-minute intervals for 3 hours.
Results—Blood nitric oxide concentrations were greater in all vessels tested in group 3 than in group 2 rats.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Acute portal hypertension in this experimental model results in increased concentrations of NO in the systemic and portal circulation. On the basis of information in the rat, it is possible that increased NO concentrations may develop in dogs following surgical treatment of congenital portosystemic shunts if acute life-threatening portal hypertension develops. Increased NO concentrations may contribute to the shock syndrome that develops in these dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:1173–1177)
Objective—To determine long-term results and complications of gonadectomy performed at an early age (prepubertal) or at the traditional age in cats.
Animals—263 cats from animal shelters.
Procedure—Cats that underwent gonadectomy were allotted to 2 groups on the basis of estimated age at surgery (traditional age, ≥ 24 weeks old; prepubertal, < 24 weeks old). Adoptive owner information was obtained from shelter records, and telephone interviews were conducted with owners to determine physical or behavioral problems observed in the cats after adoption. Follow-up information was obtained from attending veterinarians for cats with complex problems or when owners were uncertain regarding the exact nature of their cat's problem.
Results—Compared with traditional-age gonadectomy, prepubertal gonadectomy did not result in an increased incidence of infectious disease, behavioral problems, or problems associated with any body system during a median follow-up period of 37 months. Additionally, the rate of retention in the original adoptive household was the same for cats that underwent prepubertal gonadectomy as those that underwent traditional-age gonadectomy.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Prepubertal gonadectomy may be performed safely in cats without concern for increased incidence of physical or behavioral problems for at least a 3-year period after gonadectomy. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217: 1661–1665)