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Abstract

CASE DESCRIPTION 2 dogs with chylothorax were identified to have cardiac mass lesions obstructing the return of venous blood from the cranial vena cava. Chylous effusion was presumed to have been a result of an increase in cranial vena cava pressure affecting flow of chyle through the thoracic duct.

CLINICAL FINDINGS Both dogs had tachypnea and pleural effusion requiring therapeutic thoracocentesis. Fluid analysis confirmed chylothorax. A heart-base mass was identified via echocardiography in each dog, and CT-angiographic findings confirmed obstruction to venous return in the cranial vena cava in both dogs and compression of the pulmonary artery in 1 dog.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME Each dog was anesthetized, and self-expanding endovascular stents were placed with fluoroscopic guidance. In both dogs, the site of stent placement was the cranial vena cava, and in 1 dog, an additional stent was positioned in the pulmonary artery. Chylous effusion resolved successfully in both dogs after surgery, with postoperative survival times exceeding 6 months. Complications included periprocedural arrhythmias in both dogs and eventual obstruction of the stent with tumor extension and fluid reaccumulation in 1 dog.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE Endovascular stent placement may provide a useful palliative treatment for chylothorax secondary to vascular compression by a heart-base mass in dogs.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

The medical records of 50 horses examined because of lacerations of the tendon of the superficial or deep digital flexor muscle were reviewed to determine whether any injury or treatment factors could be associated with outcome. Median age of horses treated was 4.5 years (range, 1.5 years to 15 years), and the median follow-up time was 5 years (range, 1.5 to 16 years) after injury. Horses were considered to have survived if they were alive more than 1 year after injury. Twelve of 16 horses that had 1 or the other tendon transected survived; 13 of 16 horses that had both tendons transected survived; and 14 of 18 horses that had partial tendon disruptions of 1 or both tendons survived. Of the 39 surviving horses, 27 horses returned to their original use, and 32 horses were sound for riding. Nine horses with 1 or both tendons transected were being used for athletic activities. Lacerated tendons were sutured in 16 horses, and 15 of these survived. Tendons were not sutured in 34 horses, and 24 of these survived. We were not able to detect any association between outcome and tendon sheath involvement or between outcome and limb involvement (forelimb vs hind limb).

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the pharmacokinetics of butorphanol tartrate after IV and IM single-dose administration in red-tailed hawks (RTHs) and great horned owls (GHOs).

Animals—6 adult RTHs and 6 adult GHOs.

Procedures—Each bird received an injection of butorphanol (0.5 mg/kg) into either the right jugular vein (IVj) or the pectoral muscles in a crossover study (1-week interval between treatments). The GHOs also later received butorphanol (0.5 mg/kg) via injection into a medial metatarsal vein (IVm). During each 24-hour postinjection period, blood samples were collected from each bird; plasma butorphanol concentrations were determined via liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

Results—2- and 1-compartment models best fit the IV and IM pharmacokinetic data, respectively, in both species. Terminal half-lives of butorphanol were 0.94 ± 0.30 hours (IVj) and 0.94 ± 0.26 hours (IM) for RTHs and 1.79 ± 1.36 hours (IVj), 1.84 ± 1.56 hours (IM), and 1.19 ± 0.34 hours (IVm) for GHOs. In GHOs, area under the curve (0 to infinity) for butorphanol after IVj or IM administration exceeded values in RTHs; GHO values after IM and IVm administration were less than those after IVj administration. Plasma butorphanol clearance was significantly more rapid in the RTHs. Bioavailability of butorphanol administered IM was 97.6 ± 33.2% (RTHs) and 88.8 ± 4.8% (GHOs).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In RTHs and GHOs, butorphanol was rapidly absorbed and distributed via all routes of administration; the drug's rapid terminal half-life indicated that published dosing intervals for birds may be inadequate in RTHs and GHOs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To measure the relationship between gross lesions in swine carcasses observed at a processing plant and Salmonella contamination and to determine whether nonexpert assessments of lesion status would correspond with swine pathologists' judgments.

Animals—Carcasses of 202 conventionally raised and 156 antimicrobial-free pigs in a Midwestern US processing plant examined from December 2005 to January 2006.

Procedures—4 replicates were conducted. For each, freshly eviscerated carcasses were identified as having or lacking visceral adhesions by a nonexpert evaluator and digital carcass photographs were obtained. Swab specimens were obtained from carcasses before the final rinse stage of processing, and bacterial culture for Salmonella spp and Enterococcus spp was performed. Subsequently, carcass photographs were numerically scored for lesion severity by 3 veterinary pathologists. Results were used to test the ability of lesion detection to predict bacterial contamination of carcasses and the agreement between judgments of the inexperienced and experienced assessors.

Results—The probability of Salmonella contamination in carcasses with lesions identified at the abattoir was 90% higher than that in carcasses lacking lesions, after controlling for replicate identity and antimicrobial use. The receiver operating characteristic curve and Cohen κ indicated close agreement between lesion detection at the abattoir and by the 3 pathologists.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Findings indicated the presence of lesions could be used to predict Salmonella contamination of swine carcasses and that a nonexpert processing-line assessment of lesions could be used to discriminate between healthy and chronically ill swine before their entry into the human food supply.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine clinical outcome following intrathecal injection of the podotrochlear (navicular) bursa for signs of foot pain in horses evaluated via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and evaluate efficacy of corticosteroids administered with or without hyaluronate.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—23 horses.

Procedures—Data collected included signalment, history, intended use, duration and severity of lameness, results of diagnostic anesthesia, radiographic abnormalities, MRI abnormalities, and outcomes for return to use.

Results—MRI was conducted on 23 horses with lameness localized to the foot. Thirteen horses had bilateral forelimb lameness, and 10 had unilateral forelimb lameness. Mean duration of lameness was 10.5 months. Seventeen of 23 (74%) horses had excellent outcomes and returned to intended use within 2 to 4 weeks after navicular bursa injection. Hyaluronate treatment was not associated with outcome; however, horses receiving < 10 mg of trimacinolone had significantly worse outcomes than those treated with hyaluronate. Among horses with excellent outcomes, mean duration of soundness was 7.3 months. Seven of 8 horses with erosive lesions of the flexor surface of the distal sesamoid (navicular) bone diagnosed via MRI had a poor outcome. Horses with navicular bursitis responded optimally to injection, compared with horses with other problems.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that intrathecal injection of corticosteroid in horses with erosions of the flexor surface of the navicular bone associated with deep digital flexor tendon adhesions yielded a poor response. Treatment of horses with navicular bursitis via injection of the navicular bursa should be highly effective in alleviating lameness.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

A review of medical records was used to identify 10 horses in which stringhalt developed subsequent to trauma to the dorsal metatarsus. Six horses developed stringhalt within 3 months after injury, 3 horses developed stringhalt > 3 months after injury, and time from injury to stringhalt was unknown for 1 horse. Horses were treated with exercise, including daily hand-walking with pasture turnout, followed by lunging; or surgically, using lateral digital extensor myotenectomy. Of the horses treated with exercise, 1 had resolution of stringhalt, 2 improved but had residual stringhalt, and 1 had no change. Two of the horses having lateral digital extensor myotenectomy had resolution of stringhalt. Two of the remaining 3 horses treated surgically had varying degrees of improvement, and in 1 horse there was no change. Stringhalt is a potential complication following trauma to the dorsal metatarsal region. Potential causes include tendon adhesions enhancing tarsocrural joint flexion or abnormalities in the myotatic reflex caused by tendon injury that result in abnormal flexion of the tarsocrural joint.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To develop a visual analogue scale (VAS) questionnaire that is repeatable and valid for use in assessing pain and lameness in dogs.

Sample Population—48 client-owned dogs with mild to moderate lameness.

Procedure—The dogs were from 3 studies conducted during a 3-year period. Of the 48 dogs, 19 were used in repeatability assessment, 48 were used in principal component analysis, and 44 were used in model selection procedures and validity testing. A test-retest measure of repeatability was conducted on dogs with a change of < 10% in vertical peak force. A force platform was used as the criterion-referenced standard for detecting lameness. Principal component analysis was used to describe dimensionality of the data. Repeatable questions were used as explanatory variables in multiple regression models to predict force plate measurements. Peak vertical, craniocaudal, and associated impulses were the forces used to quantify lameness. The regression models were used to test the criterion validity of the questionnaire.

Results—19 of 39 questions were found to be repeatable on the basis of a Spearman rank-correlation cut point of > 0.6. Model selection procedures resulted in 3 overlapping subsets of questions that were considered valid representations of the forces measured (vertical peak, vertical impulse, and propulsion peak). Each reduced model fit the data as well as the full model.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The VAS questionnaire was repeatable and valid for use in assessing the degree of mild to moderate lameness in dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:1634–1643)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research