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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Compare immune responses induced by 2 commercial intranasal (IN) modified-live viral (MLV) vaccines given individually or coadministered and evaluate prevention of infection and lung pathology following bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) challenge.

ANIMALS

36 male Holstein calves (ages, 5 to 12 days).

METHODS

In a randomized complete block design, each calf received an IN injection of either vaccine diluent (Placebo), an MLV vaccine containing bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1; N3), bovine coronavirus vaccine (BC), or both N3 and BC (BC + N3) with a booster 4 weeks later. Nasal secretions and blood were collected weekly. Three weeks after the booster, the calves were challenged with BHV-1, sampled for virus shedding, and euthanized 10 days later to quantify lung pathology. The study period was September 7, 2020, to April 6, 2021.

RESULTS

Calves were seropositive for BHV-1 and BC before vaccination. No significant difference in BC-specific serum immunoglobin G and nasal immunoglobin A antibody responses in the BC versus BC + N3 group or BHV-1–specific serum immunoglobin G and nasal immunoglobin A antibody responses in the N3 versus BC + N3 group. Cytokine responses to BHV-1 and BC did not differ among groups. BHV-1 shedding after challenge was significantly reduced in N3 groups versus Placebo and BC. There was a significant reduction in lung pathology in the N3 + BC group versus Placebo.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

This study provides evidence an MLV vaccine containing BHV-1 and an MLV BC vaccine can be coadministered to neonatal calves without significantly altering immune responses to the 2 viruses or compromising the prevention of BHV-1 respiratory disease. Calves receiving the BC + N3 vaccine had a significant reduction in lung pathology after BHV-1 aerosol challenge.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare immune responses following modified-live virus (MLV) vaccination at weaning after intranasal or SC administration of an MLV vaccine to beef calves at 2 or 70 days of age.

Animals—184 calves.

Procedures—Calves were allocated to 1 of 5 groups. The IN2 (n = 37) and IN70 (37) groups received an MLV vaccine containing bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV1), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) types 1 and 2, bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), and parainfluenza 3 virus intranasally and a Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida bacterin SC at median ages of 2 and 70 days, respectively. The SC2 (n = 36) and SC70 (37) groups received a 7-way MLV vaccine containing BHV1, BVDV1, BVDV2, BRSV, parainfluenza 3 virus, M haemolytica, and P multocida SC at median ages of 2 and 70 days, respectively; the control group (37) remained unvaccinated until weaning. All calves received the 7-way MLV vaccine SC at median ages of 217 (weaning) and 231 days. Serum neutralizing antibody (SNA) titers against BHV1, BVDV1, and BRSV and intranasal IgA concentrations were determined at median ages of 2, 70, 140, 217, and 262 days. Cell-mediated immunity (CMI) against BHV1, BRSV, BVDV1, and P multocida was determined for 16 calves/group.

Results—At median ages of 140 and 217 days, BVDV1 SNA titers were significantly higher for the SC70 group than those for the other groups. Intranasal IgA concentrations and CMI increased over time for all groups. Vaccination at weaning increased SNA titers and CMI in all groups.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—SC administration of an MLV vaccine to 70-day-old calves significantly increased BVDV1 antibody titers before weaning.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research