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Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the effectiveness of a novel trimethoprim-sulfadiazine oral suspension for the treatment of naturally acquired Streptococcus equi subsp zooepidemicus infection in horses.

Design—Randomized, controlled field trial.

Animals—180 horses with S equi subsp zooepidemicus infection.

Procedures—Horses with lower respiratory tract infections caused by S equi subsp zooepidemicus were treated with a new formulation of combined trimethoprim-sulfadiazine oral suspension at a dosage of 24 mg/kg (10.9 mg/lb) twice daily for 10 days (treatment group) or with an equivalent volume of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (placebo group). Response to treatment, including clinical signs and fecal consistency scores, was assessed twice daily. Any adverse effects were recorded. The primary outcome variable was clinical response; the secondary outcome variable was eradication of S equi subsp zooepidemicus on study day 17 as determined by bacteriologic culture of repeated transtracheal-wash specimens.

Results—Of the 119 horses allocated to the treatment group, 69 (58%) had a positive clinical response. A significantly smaller proportion of horses in the placebo group (9/61 [15%]) had a positive clinical response. By day 5, 25 of 61 (41%) placebo horses had been withdrawn from the study because of negative clinical response, compared with only 10 of 119 (8.4%) treated horses. By day 10, 28 of 61 (46%) placebo horses had been withdrawn because of negative clinical response, compared with only 13 of 119 (11%) treated horses. There were few adverse events associated with the trimethoprim-sulfadiazine suspension. There were no significant differences in fecal consistency scores between treatment and placebo groups.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The new oral suspension administered at 24 mg/kg twice daily effectively treated the clinical signs of S equi subsp zooepidemicus lower respiratory infection in horses and eliminated the organism from the respiratory tract. Adverse effects were minimal.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate in vitro holding power and associated microstructural and thermal damage from placement of positive-profile transfixation pins in the diaphysis and metaphysis of the equine third metacarpal bone.

Sample Population—Third metacarpal bones from 30 pairs of adult equine cadavers.

Procedure—Centrally threaded positive-profile transfixation pins were placed in the diaphysis of 1 metacarpal bone and the metaphysis of the opposite metacarpal bone of 15 pairs of bones. Tensile force at failure for axial extraction was measured with a materials testing system. An additional 15 pairs of metacarpal bones were tested similarly following cyclic loading. Microstructural damage was evaluated via scanning electron microscopy in another 6 pairs of metacarpal bones, 2 pairs in each of the following 3 groups: metacarpal bones with tapped holes and without transfixation pin placement, metacarpal bones following transfixation pin placement, and metacarpal bones following transfixation pin placement and cyclic loading. Temperature of the hardware was measured with a surface thermocouple in 12 additional metacarpal bones warmed to 38 C.

Results—The diaphysis provided significantly greater resistance to axial extraction than the metaphysis. There were no significant temperature differences between diaphyseal and metaphyseal placement. Microstructural damage was limited to occasional microfractures seen only in cortical bone of diaphyseal and metaphyseal locations. Microfractures originated during drilling and tapping but did not worsen following transfixation pin placement or cyclic loading.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Centrally threaded, positive-profile transfixation pins have greater resistance to axial extraction in the diaphysis than in the metaphysis of equine third metacarpal bone in vitro. This information may be used to create more stable external skeletal fixation in horses with fractures. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:1304–1308)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To identify the duration and potential mechanisms of analgesia following extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) and radial pressure wave therapy (RPWT) in limbs of horses and sheep.

Animals—6 horses and 30 sheep.

Procedure—An electrical stimulus was used to identify the nociceptive threshold for each horse daily for 3 days before treatment (baseline) with ESWT or RPWT, 8 hours after treatment, and at 24-hour intervals for 7 days after treatment. Testing was conducted for the treatment field (midmetacarpus or midmetatarsus) and nerve field (medial and lateral forelimb heel bulbs) distal to a treatment site that included the nerve on the abaxial surface of the proximal sesamoid bone. All 4 limbs of 30 sheep were treated with ESWT, RPWT, or a sham treatment. Two sheep were euthanatized daily and tissue harvested for histologic evaluation of nerves, and concentrations of substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide were measured in the skin and periosteum.

Results—Values did not differ significantly between baseline and after treatment for the treatment field or nerve field sensation. There was a large difference in the slope when data for horses were plotted for the first 3 days after treatment, compared with the slope for days 4 to 7 after treatment. No differences were found in neuropeptide concentrations after treatment of the sheep, but there was an inflammatory response in the treated nerves.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A small cutaneous analgesic effect may exist at the treatment site for approximately 3 days after ESWT or RPWT in horses. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1702–1708)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare the in vitro holding power and associated microstructural damage of 2 large-animal centrally threaded positive-profile transfixation pins in the diaphysis of the equine third metacarpal bone.

Sample Population—25 pairs of adult equine cadaver metacarpal bones.

Procedure—Centrally threaded positive-profile transfixation pins of 2 different designs (ie, self-drilling, self-tapping [SDST] vs nonself-drilling, nonself-tapping [NDNT] transfixation pins) were inserted into the middiaphysis of adult equine metacarpal bones. Temperature of the hardware was measured during each step of insertion with a surface thermocouple. Bone and cortical width, transfixation pin placement, and cortical damage were assessed radiographically. Resistance to axial extraction before and after cyclic loading was measured using a material testing system. Microstructural damage caused by transfixation pin insertion was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy.

Results—The temperature following pin insertion was significantly higher for SDST transfixation pins. Periosteal surface cortical fractures were found in 50% of the bones with SDST transfixation pins and in none with NDNT transfixation pins. The NDNT transfixation pins were significantly more resistant to axial extraction than SDST transfixation pins. Grossly and microscopically, NDNT transfixation pins created less damage to the bone and a more consistent thread pattern.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In vitro analysis revealed that insertion of NDNT transfixation pins cause less macroscopic and microscopic damage to the bone than SDST transfixation pins. The NDNT transfixation pins have a greater pull out strength, reflecting better initial bone transfixation pin stability. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:1298–1303)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the effect of focused extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) and radial pressure wave therapy (RPWT) on immunohistochemical staining for substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in the skin and periosteum of sheep.

Animals—36 sheep.

Procedures—All 4 limbs of 36 sheep were treated with ESWT, RPWT, or a sham treatment. For 14 days after treatment, at least 2 sheep were euthanized daily and tissue was harvested for histologic evaluation of nerves via staining for substance P and CGRP in the skin and periosteum.

Results—No effects of ESWT or RPWT were observed on the number of nerves with stain uptake for substance P or CGRP in the skin or periosteum.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Substance P- and CGRP-containing nerve fibers are not disrupted by EWST or RPWT. Further studies are needed to identify the mechanism of analgesia observed in association with these treatment modalities.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the accuracy and precision of dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) for measuring bone mineral density in horses in situ.

Sample Population—12 randomly selected forelimbs from 12 horses.

Procedure—Metacarpi were scanned in 2 planes and DEXA measurements obtained for 6 regions of interest (ROI). Each ROI was isolated and bone density measured by Archimedes' principle. Linear regression analysis was used to determine the correlation between the 2 measurements at each ROI. An additional metacarpus was measured 10 times to determine the coefficient of variation for both techniques.

Results—Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and bone density were significantly associated at multiple ROI. The addition of age, weight, and soft tissue or bone thickness improved these associations. Repeated measurements had a low coefficient of variation.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry can be used to accurately and precisely measure the bone density in the equine metacarpus. Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry appears suitable for serial in vivo measurement of bone density of the equine metacarpus. Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry may be used for studies to evaluate the effects of diet or drugs on bone density or density changes from bone remodeling that develop prior to stress fractures. ( Am J Vet Res 2001; 62:752–756)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether conditions representing activities that are typical in the recreational use of horses, including transport to and from show grounds, stall confinement in unfamiliar surroundings, and light exercise, are associated with increased incidence of gastric ulcers in horses.

Design—Randomized controlled study.

Animals—20 client-owned horses.

Procedure—Horses had no gastric ulcers as determined by endoscopic examination on study day –1. Ten control horses were maintained on-site with no changes in management variables. Ten horses were transported via trailer for 4 hours on day 0 to another site, placed in individual stalls, fed twice daily, and exercised twice daily for 3 days. On day 4, they were transported back to the original site via trailer for 4 hours. On day 5, endoscopic examinations were performed on all horses to assess gastric mucosa status.

Results—Horses that were transported and housed off-site had a significantly higher incidence of hyperkeratosis and reddening of the gastric mucosa than control horses. Two control horses and 7 transported horses developed gastric ulcers by day 5. Ulcer scores of transported horses increased significantly from day –1, whereas ulcer scores in control horses did not change significantly from day –1.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Activities that are typical in recreational use of horses were ulcerogenic, and ulcers in the gastric squamous mucosa can develop under these conditions within 5 days. ( J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:775–777)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the ability of industrial polystyrene foam insulation pads to redistribute loads placed on clinically normal weight-bearing structures of the foot and shift the location of the center of pressure palmarly in horses.

Animals—25 nonlame mature horses.

Procedures—Both forefeet from each horse were evaluated. Center of pressure data and solar load distribution patterns were recorded during a 5-second trial by use of a commercial pressure measurement system prior to placement of foam sole support and at 0, 6, 12, 24, and 48 hours after placement. Total contact surface area, contact pressure, peak contact pressure, and center of pressure positions were compared by use of a linear mixed model with repeated measurements.

Results—Total contact surface area was increased significantly at all time points, whereas contact pressure and peak contact pressure were significantly decreased at all time points following application of foam sole supports. Immediately following application of sole support, the position of the center of pressure was significantly moved cranially. However, by 48 hours, the center of pressure was significantly positioned more palmarly than prior to application of the foam supports.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that the use of foam sole supports may be an effective, economical, and immediate treatment for acute laminitis.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To measure alterations in lameness severity that occur following use of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) in horses with naturally occurring unilateral forelimb lameness.

Design—Nonrandomized clinical trial.

Animals—9 horses with unilateral forelimb lameness.

Procedures—Force platform gait analysis was performed prior to administration of any treatments (baseline) and after use of local anesthesia to eliminate the lameness. Extracorporeal shock wave therapy was then administered, and gait analysis was repeated 8 hours later and then daily for 7 days.

Results—Compared with the baseline value, peak vertical force was significantly increased 8 hours and 2 days after ESWT, and peak vertical force on day 2 was not significantly different from force measured after use of local anesthesia to eliminate the lameness. Similarly, vertical impulse was significantly increased, compared with the baseline value, 8 hours and 2 days after ESWT, but at all times, it was significantly lower than vertical impulse measured after use of local anesthesia.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that in horses with naturally occurring lameness, use of ESWT results in a period of acute improvement in lameness severity that typically persists for 2 days. Thus, in horses undergoing ESWT, exercise should be controlled for a minimum of 2 days after treatment to prevent further injury.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the incidence and anatomic location of and potential risk factors for catastrophic musculoskeletal injuries (CMIs) in racing Quarter Horses.

Design—Retrospective matched case-control study.

Animals—67 racing Quarter Horse racehorses euthanized because of CMIs and 134 matched controls.

Procedures—Data for Quarter Horses that sustained CMIs and the total number of race starts for each year were obtained from 2 Midwestern racing jurisdictions from 2000 through 2011. Information for each horse with a CMI and for 2 randomly selected control horses that ran in the same race but did not incur a CMI were obtained from race records, past performance reports, and video analysis.

Results—There were 61,797 race starts and 82 CMIs from 2000 through 2011 at the 2 racetracks studied, for an overall CMI incidence of 1.33 CMIs/1,000 starts. Sixty-seven horses with CMIs for which complete data were available and 134 matched control horses were included in the study. There was no difference in the incidence of CMIs between the 2 racetracks or over the years studied. The right forelimb was injured in 38 of the 67 (56.7%) horses. Injures to the carpus (24/67 [35.8%]) and metacarpophalangeal joint (fetlock joint; 23/67 [34.3%]) occurred most frequently. Case-control data indicated that the horses with a CMI had fewer starts, were more likely to have stumbled at the break, had a more erratic stride, were fatigued, and trailed in the race, compared with matched controls from the same races. Irrespective of race distance, most of the horses (47/67 [70.1%]) were injured after or within 10 yards before the finish line.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The results of the present study may aid in the identification of racing Quarter Horses at risk for CMIs. The cluster of injuries near the finish line provides a specific focus for future research into methods of injury prevention in this population of racehorses.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association