Objective—To compare analgesia provided by carprofen and tramadol in dogs after enucleation.
Design—Randomized, masked clinical trial.
Procedures—Client-owned dogs admitted for routine enucleation were randomly assigned to receive either carprofen or tramadol orally 2 hours prior to surgery and 12 hours after the first dose. Dogs were scored for signs of pain at baseline (ie, before carprofen or tramadol administration) and at 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 24, and 30 hours after extubation. Dogs received identical premedication and inhalation anesthesia regimens, including premedication with hydromorphone. If the total pain score was ≥ 9 (maximum possible score of 20), there was a score ≥ 3 in any of 5 behavioral categories (highest score possible per category was 3 or 4), or the visual analog scale (VAS) score was ≥ 35 (maximum possible score of 100) combined with a palpation score > 0, rescue analgesia (hydromorphone) was administered and treatment failure was recorded.
Results—No differences were found in age, sex, or baseline pain scores between groups. Significantly more dogs receiving tramadol required rescue analgesia (6/21), compared with dogs receiving carprofen (1/22). Pain and VAS scores decreased linearly over time. No significant differences were found in pain or VAS scores between groups at any time point (dogs were excluded from analysis after rescue).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of this study suggested that carprofen, with opioid premedication, may provide more effective postoperative analgesia than tramadol in dogs undergoing enucleation.
OBJECTIVE To determine the size of the left and right kidneys by use of CT in dogs of various breeds without evidence of renal disease.
DESIGN Retrospective, observational study.
ANIMALS 21 client-owned dogs.
PROCEDURES Renal length, diameter of the abdominal aorta, and length of the L2 vertebral body were measured independently on multiplanar reformatted non–contrast-enhanced CT images by 3 observers at 3 time points. Intraobserver and interobserver agreement for renal length were determined. Associations of renal length with body weight, aorta diameter, and L2 vertebral body length were assessed by calculation of Pearson correlation coefficients and 95% confidence intervals. Renal measurements were normalized to patient size by calculating renal length-to-aorta diameter and renal length-to-L2 vertebral body length ratios for comparison with previously published radiographic and ultrasonographic measurements.
RESULTS All kidneys were identified and measured on CT images by all observers. Intraobserver and interobserver agreement were excellent. Body weight, aorta diameter, and length of the L2 vertebral body were significantly correlated with renal length. Renal length-to-aorta diameter and renal length-to-L2 vertebral body length ratios (7.4 and 2.7, respectively) fell within the ranges of previously published values for these measurements.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE As CT becomes more widely available in general practice, knowledge of typical renal measurements and anatomic ratios obtained with this modality in dogs may be useful. A prospective study with a larger population of dogs, ideally including formulation of a reference range, is needed.
To evaluate with CT the characteristics of brain tissue disruption and skull damage in cadaveric heads of adult horses caused by each of 6 firearm-ammunition combinations applied at a novel anatomic aiming point.
53 equine cadaveric heads.
Heads placed to simulate that of a standing horse were shot with 1 of 6 firearm-ammunition combinations applied at an aiming point along the external sagittal crest of the head where the 2 temporalis muscles form an inverted V. Firearm-ammunition combinations investigated included a .22-caliber long rifle pistol firing a 40-grain, plated lead, solid-core or hollow-point bullet (HPB); a semiautomatic 9-mm pistol firing a 115-grain, jacketed HPB; a semiautomatic .223-caliber carbine firing a 55-grain, jacketed HPB; a semiautomatic .45-caliber automatic Colt pistol firing a 230-grain, jacketed HPB; and a 12-gauge shotgun firing a 1-oz rifled slug. Additional heads placed in a simulated laterally recumbent position were shot with the semiautomatic 9-mm pistol–HPB combination. All heads underwent CT before and after being shot, and images were evaluated for projectile fragmentation, skull fracture, and cerebrum, cerebellum, and brainstem disruption.
Computed tomography revealed that all firearm-ammunition combinations caused disruption of the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brainstem that appeared sufficient to result in instantaneous death of a live horse. Hollow-point ammunition was as effective as solid-core ammunition with regard to brain tissue disruption. Brain tissue disruption was not affected by head positioning.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Results indicated that the examined firearm-ammunition combinations, when applied at a novel aiming point, appear to be reasonable options for euthanasia of horses.
To evaluate the effects of withholding food on the results for measurements of serum concentrations of cobalamin, folate, canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity (cPLI), and canine trypsin-like immunoreactivity (cTLI) in healthy dogs.
11 healthy employee- or student-owned dogs.
Food was withheld from the dogs for 12 hours, baseline blood samples were collected, then dogs were fed. Postprandial blood samples collected 1, 2, 4, and 8 hours later were assessed. A mixed-effects ANOVA model with fasting duration (time) as a fixed factor and dog as a random effect was fit for each analyte variable. Additionally, a mixed-effects ANOVA model controlling for the variable of time was fit to assess whether lipemia affected serum concentrations of the analytes.
The median serum cobalamin concentration was lower at 4 hours (428 ng/L) and 8 hours (429 ng/L) postprandially, compared with baseline (479 ng/L), but this difference was not clinically meaningful. Although there were no substantial differences in serum concentrations of folate, cPLI, or cTLI, postprandial changes in serum concentrations of cTLI or folate could potentially affect diagnoses in some dogs.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Although results indicated that feedings rarely resulted in clinically important differences in the median serum concentrations of cobalamin, folate, cPLI, or cTLI in healthy dogs, given the further processing required for lipemic samples, withholding food for at least 8 hours is an appropriate recommendation when measuring these analytes. Similar research is needed in dogs with gastrointestinal disease to determine whether the withholding of food is necessary when measuring these analytes in affected dogs.