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  • Author or Editor: Scott D. Moroff x
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Summary:

Medical records were reviewed for 18 cats with adenomatous polyps of the proximal portion of the duodenum. Cats of Asian ancestry were over represented (8/18), and male castrated cats were common (15/18). The median age was 11.8 years. Common clinical signs were acute and chronic vomiting and hematemesis. Nine cats were anemic. Contrast radiography was performed in 12 cats, and a mass of the proximal portion of the duodenum was identified in 10 cats. Endoscopy was used to confirm existence of the mass in 3 cats. Complete excision of the duodenal mass was performed in 17 cats. One cat died before abdominal exploratory surgery, and a duodenal adenomatous polyp was identified at necropsy. Fifteen cats survived the immediate postoperative period, with 13 of 15 having complete resolution of clinical signs. Five cats had concurrent disease, which caused 4 of them to die between 3 and 26 months after surgery. Redevelopment of adenomatous polyps was not detected in any cat during the follow-up period of 1 to 49 months. Results of the study indicated that benign, adenomatous polyps of the duodenum in cats can be safely excised and that the prognosis for return to normal function is excellent.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Forty-one cases of infiltrative urethral disease in female dogs were reviewed. The cause was epithelial neoplasia in 29 dogs, granulomatous (chronic active) urethritis in 10 dogs, and leiomyoma in 2 dogs. Clinical signs of disease were similar in dogs with neoplastic and inflammatory disease and included strangury (36/41), hematuria (30/41), pollakiuria (20/41), vaginal discharge (16/41), and complete urinary obstruction (7/41). Results of aspiration biopsy of the urethra correlated with those of surgical biopsy in 11 of 15 dogs. In 4 of 15 dogs, results of cytologic and histologic examinations differed. Granulomatous (chronic active) urethritis is an infiltrative urethral disease in female dogs. Clinical findings are similar, but the prognosis is more favorable than that in dogs with urethral epithelial neoplasia.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Medical records of 117 dogs with digit masses were reviewed. Of 124 digit masses, 76 (61%) were malignant neoplasms, 25 (20%) were benign neoplasms, and 23 (19%) were pyogranulomatous inflammation. Of 29 digits with radiographic evidence of bone lysis, 24 (83%) were affected by malignant masses, whereas only 5 of 29 (17%) digits with radiographic evidence of bone lysis were affected by benign or pyogranulomatous masses. Only 1 of 19 (5%) dogs with melanoma had radiographic evidence of lysis, but 20 of 25 (80%) dogs with squamous cell carcinoma had radiographic evidence of bone lysis. Thoracic radiographs of 95 dogs were available. Six of 19 (32%) dogs with melanoma had radiographic evidence of pulmonary metastasis at the time of diagnosis, whereas 3 of 24 (13%) dogs with squamous cell carcinoma had radiographic evidence of pulmonary metastasis at the time of diagnosis. Twenty-nine digit neoplasms were squamous cell carcinoma, and 19 of 29 (66%) arose from the subungual epithelium. Of 19 dogs with squamous cell carcinoma originating from the subungual epithelium, 18 (95%) survived for at least 1 year, whereas only 6 of 10 (60%) dogs with squamous cell carcinoma originating in other parts of the digit survived for at least 1 year. Furthermore, of 19 dogs with squamous cell carcinoma originating from the subungual epithelium, 14 (74%) survived at least 2 years, whereas only 4 of 9 (44%) dogs with squamous cell carcinoma originating in other parts of the digit survived for 2 years. Dogs with melanoma of the digits had a median survival time of 12 months, with 10 of 24 (42%) alive at 1 year and 3 of 23 (13%) alive at 2 years. Dogs with mast cell tumor of the digits had a median survival time of 20 months, with 7 of 8 (88%) dogs alive at 1 year and 4 of 8 (50%) alive at 2 years.

Analysis of the results of the study reported here indicated that the prevalence of neoplasms in dogs with digit masses was high. Malignant neoplasms were more prevalent than benign neoplasms, with the most commonly identified types being squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma. Radiographic evidence of bone lysis was seen in dogs with all types of masses but was more commonly associated with squamous cell carcinoma than with melanoma. Dogs with melanoma of the digit had a higher prevalence of pulmonary metastasis and a poorer prognosis than dogs with squamous cell carcinoma.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective—

To evaluate clinical, laboratory, radiographic, ultrasonographic, surgical, and histologic findings in ferrets with insulinoma and to determine their long-term outcome.

Design—

Retrospective study.

Animals—

57 ferrets with a histopathologic diagnosis of pancreatic islet cell tumor.

Procedure—

Medical records of ferrets with pancreatic islet cell tumors were reviewed.

Results—

Lethargy, weakness, and collapse were the most common clinical signs. All ferrets had hypoglycemia, and hyperinsulinemia was documented in 39 of 47 (83%) ferrets. Ultrasonographic examination of the abdomen revealed pancreatic nodules in 5 of 23 ferrets. Surgical treatment was performed in 50 ferrets, 3 were treated by medical management alone, and 4 did not have treatment. At the time of surgery, 1 pancreatic nodule was found in 13 (26%) ferrets and multiple nodules were found in 37 (74%) ferrets. Pancreatic carcinoma alone was found in 34 ferrets, whereas a combination of carcinoma and either hyperplasia or adenoma was found in 23 ferrets; 4 ferrets had metastasis to regional lymph nodes or liver. In 26 (53%) ferrets, hypoglycemia persisted after surgery, necessitating medical treatment with prednisone, diazoxide, or both. Sixteen (33%) ferrets had redevelopment of hypoglycemia at 1 to 23.5 months (median, 10.6 months) after surgery. Only 7 of the 50 (14%) ferrets remained euglycemic after surgery.

Clinical Implications—

In ferrets, surgical removal of insulin-secreting pancreatic islet cell tumors is recommended as definitive treatment; however, multiple pancreatic nodules are common, making complete excision of all tumor tissue difficult. Persistent hypoglycemia after surgical treatment indicates that lifelong medical management with prednisone or diazoxide or both may be necessary in many ferrets. Finally, because the insulin-secreting tumors are malignant, long-term cure and survival are not likely. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996;209:1741–1745)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Adrenocortical adenoma, nodular hyperplasia, or carcinoma was diagnosed in 50 ferrets. Thirty-five (70%) ferrets were female and 15 (30%) were male. The mean age at which clinical signs were first noticed was 3.4 years (range, 1 to 7 years). Clinical signs included large vulva (n = 31; 89% of females), alopecia (n = 43; 86%), pruritus (n = 20; 40%), and increased consumption of water and increased urine output (n = 4; 8%). A mass was palpated at the cranial pole of the kidney during physical examination of 17 (34%) ferrets. Ultrasonography, performed on 39 of 50 ferrets, revealed a unilateral adrenal gland mass in 19 (49%). Four ferrets were anemic, and 2 ferrets were thrombocytopenic. Baseline plasma concentrations of cortisol and corticosterone were within or below the reference range in all 17 ferrets tested, whereas baseline plasma estradiol concentrations were high in 4 of the 11 ferrets (36%) tested. After adrenocorticotropic hormone (acth) administration, only 1 ferret had a slightly exaggerated response on the basis of plasma cortisol concentrations, and all 17 had normal responses on the basis of plasma corticosterone concentrations. There was little or no increase in plasma estradiol concentrations after acth administration. Of the 50 ferrets, 39 were treated by adrenalectomy. Unilateral adrenalectomy was performed in 34 ferrets in which 1 adrenal gland was large, whereas subtotal bilateral adrenalectomy was performed in 5 ferrets with bilateral adrenal disease. Five ferrets died in the immediate postoperative period, and follow-up information was available for the remaining 34, 1 to 34 months after surgery. A decrease in vulvar size was generally noticed by 2 days after surgery, and complete hair regrowth was noticed by 2 months.

Because clinical signs resolved after adrenalectomy, it was likely that the adrenocortical tumors and nodular hyperplasias of the adrenal gland were hyperfunctional. However, these ferrets did not have excessively high circulating concentrations of cortisol. At present, we recommended that diagnosis of adrenocortical disease in ferrets be made on the basis of characteristic clinical signs, results of abdominal ultrasonography, and finding large adrenal glands during surgery. Results of acth stimulation tests, with determination of plasma cortisol or corticosterone concentrations, were of no value in the diagnosis.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association