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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To compare the cause of death (COD; whether by natural death or euthanasia for poor quality of life caused by a primary pathological condition) between search-and-rescue (SAR) dogs deployed to the World Trade Center, Pentagon, or Fresh Kills Landfill on Staten Island following the 9/11 terrorist attacks and SAR dogs that were not deployed to these sites.


95 deployed SAR dogs (exposed dogs) and 55 nondeployed SAR dogs (unexposed dogs).


Following natural death or euthanasia, 63 dogs (44 exposed and 19 unexposed) underwent a necropsy examination. For the remaining 87 dogs, the COD was categorized on the basis of information obtained from medical records or personal communications.


The median age of death was 12.8 years for exposed dogs and 12.7 years for unexposed dogs. The COD was not impacted by deployment status. In the 150 exposed and unexposed dogs, degenerative conditions were the most common COD followed by neoplasia. Respiratory disease was infrequent (overall, 7 [4.7%] dogs); 4 of 5 cases of pulmonary neoplasia occurred in unexposed dogs. However, in dogs that underwent necropsy, pulmonary particulates were reported significantly more often in exposed dogs (42/44 [95%]), compared with unexposed dogs (12/19 [63.2%]).


No difference was found in the COD on the basis of disease category and organ system involved between exposed and unexposed SAR dogs. The long life spans and frequency of death attributed to degenerative causes (ie, age-related causes) suggested that the risk of long-term adverse health effects in this population of SAR dogs was low.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To determine whether pamidronate disodium can reduce cholecalciferol-induced toxicosis in a dose-related manner.

Animals—20 clinically normal, 8- to 12-month-old male Beagles.

Procedure—All dogs were given 8 mg of cholecalciferol (CCF)/kg of body weight once orally, then were randomly assigned to 4 groups of 5 dogs each. Dogs were treated with IV administration of 0.9% NaCl solution (SC group), 0.65 mg of pamidronate/kg in 0.9% NaCl solution (LP group), 1.3 mg of pamidronate/kg in 0.9% NaCl solution (MP group), or 2.0 mg of pamidronate/kg in 0.9% NaCl solution (HP group) on days 1 and 4 after administration of CCF. Dogs were observed for 14 days, and serial blood samples were collected for serum biochemical, electrolyte, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 analyses. Urine samples were collected for determination of specific gravity. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was determined by plasma iohexol clearance. Histologic examination of renal tissue was performed.

Results—One dog in the SC group was euthanatized 3 days after administration of CCF because of severe clinical signs of toxicosis. Dogs in the HP group had significantly higher mean GFR (day 3), serum potassium concentrations (day 14), and urine specific gravity (days 7 and 14) and significantly lower mean serum creatinine concentrations and total calcium × phosphorus concentration product (days 4 and 7) than dogs in the SC group. Dogs in the HP group had no abnormal findings on histologic examination of renal tissue, dogs in the LP and MP groups had trace to mild mineralization of renal tissue, and dogs in the SC group had moderate mineralization and cellular necrosis of proximal renal tubules.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Pamidronate disodium is a potentially useful drug to reduce CCFinduced toxicosis and other causes of hypercalcemia associated with increased bone resorption in dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:9–13)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


OBJECTIVE To describe use of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) and evaluate the apparent sensitivity and specificity of antemortem tuberculosis tests during investigation of an unusual outbreak of Mycobacterium bovis infection in a Michigan dairy herd.

DESIGN Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) outbreak investigation.

ANIMALS Cattle, cats, dog, and wildlife.

PROCEDURES All cattle in the index dairy herd were screened for bTB with the caudal fold test (CFT), and cattle ≥ 6 months old were also screened with a γ-interferon (γIFN) assay. The index herd was depopulated along with all barn cats and a dog that were fed unpasteurized milk from the herd. Select isolates from M bovis–infected animals from the index herd and other bTB-affected herds underwent WGS. Wildlife around all affected premises was examined for bTB.

RESULTS No evidence of bTB was found in any wildlife examined. Within the index herd, 53 of 451 (11.8%) cattle and 12 of 21 (57%) cats were confirmed to be infected with M bovis. Prevalence of M bovis–infected cattle was greatest among 4- to 7-month-old calves (16/49 [33%]) followed by adult cows (36/203 [18%]). The apparent sensitivity and specificity were 86.8% and 92.7% for the CFT and 80.4% and 96.5% for the γIFN assay when results for those tests were interpreted separately and 96.1% and 91.7% when results were interpreted in parallel. Results of WGS revealed that M bovis–infected barn cats and cattle from the index herd and 6 beef operations were infected with the same strain of M bovis. Of the 6 bTB-affected beef operations identified during the investigation, 3 were linked to the index herd only by WGS results; there was no record of movement of livestock or waste milk from the index herd to those operations.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Whole-genome sequencing enhanced the epidemiological investigation and should be used in all disease investigations. Performing the CFT and γIFN assay in parallel improved the antemortem ability to detect M bovis–infected animals. Contact with M bovis–infected cattle and contaminated milk were major risk factors for transmission of bTB within and between herds of this outbreak.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association