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Abstract

Objective

To determine the effects of an IM administered carfentanil-xylazine combination on cardiopulmonary variables and plasma catecholamine concentrations and to validate use of pulse oximetry in bongo antelopes.

Animals

8 healthy adult females.

Procedure

Antelopes were immobilized with carfentanil citrate (8.3 µg/kg of body weight, IM) and xylazine hydrochloride (0.79 mg/kg, IM). Hematologic values and plasma biochemical and catecholamine concentrations were determined at the beginning and end of immobilization. Immediately after induction of immobilization and every 15 minutes thereafter, cardiopulmonary variables were determined.

Results

Induction time after carfentanil-xylazine administration was 6 ± 2 minutes. At 15 and 45 minutes after immobilization and thereafter, significant decrease in heart and respiratory rates, respectively, were observed. After 15 minutes of immobilization, all antelopes had developed mild hypoxemia, which resolved after nasal insufflation with 100% oxygen. Pulse oximetry readings underestimated arterial blood gas values, but reliably indicated trends in arterial oxygen desaturation. Antelopes developed hypoxemia after oxygen administration was terminated at the end of the procedure, prior to reversal of immobilization. Norepinephrine concentrations increased significantly (P < 0.05), and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid concentrations decreased significantly at the end of the anesthetic event. Immobilization of all antelopes was reversed, using antagonists naltrexone and yohimbine hydrochloride. Time to standing was 3 ± 1 minutes, and renarcotization was not observed.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

The carfentanil-xylazine combination at the dosage used induced hypoxemia, pronounced arterial hypertension, and significant increase in plasma norepinephrine and decrease in plasma 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid concentrations in bongo antelopes. Supplemental administration of oxygen is recommended. Pulse oximetry is a useful tool to monitor trends in arterial oxygen desaturation, but does not substitute for arterial blood gas analysis. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:157–161)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective—

To evaluate anesthetic and cardiorespiratory effects of an intramuscular injection of a tiletamine-zolazepam-medetomidine combination in cheetahs.

Design—

Prospective study.

Animals—

17 adult captive cheetahs.

Procedure—

The anesthetic combination was administered intramuscularly via a dart. Induction quality, duration of lateral recumbency, duration of recovery, and quality of anesthetic reversal with atipamezole were assessed. Cardiorespiratory variables (arterial blood gas partial pressures, arterial blood pressure, heart and respiratory rates, end-tidal CO2, oxygen saturation, and rectal temperature) were measured during anesthesia.

Results—

Sedation and lateral recumbency developed within 1.9 ± 1.0 (mean ± SD) and 4.3 ± 2.0 minutes of drug administration, respectively. Clinically acceptable cardiorespiratory and blood gas values were recorded for at least 87 minutes after drug administration in all but 1 cheetah. Hypoxemia and arrhythmias developed in 1 cheetah breathing room air but resolved after treatment with oxygen. Hypertension developed in all cheetahs. Significant differences in heart and respiratory rates, mean arterial blood pressure, arterial pH, partial pressure of oxygen, and hemoglobin saturation were found between cheetahs that did and did not receive oxygen supplementation. After administration of atipamezole, sternal recumbency and mobility returned within 6.9 ± 5.8 and 47.5 ± 102.2 minutes, respectively. Postreversal sedation, which lasted approximately 4 hours, developed in 4 cheetahs.

Clinical Implications—

Tiletamine-zolazepam-medetomidine delivered via a dart provided an alternative method for induction and maintenance of anesthesia in cheetahs. Atipamezole at the dose used was effective for reversal of this combination in the initial phase of anesthesia. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998:213:1022-1026)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To determine safety, anesthetic variables, and cardiopulmonary effects of IV infusion of propofol for induction and maintenance of anesthesia in wild turkeys.

Animals

10 healthy, adult wild turkeys.

Procedure

Anesthesia was induced by IV administration of propofol (5 mg/kg of body weight) over 20 seconds and was maintained for 30 minutes by constant IV infusion of propofol at a rate of 0.5 mg/kg/min. Heart and respiratory rates, arterial blood pressures, and arterial blood gas tensions were obtained prior to propofol administration (baseline values) and again at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 minutes after induction of anesthesia. All birds were intubated immediately after induction of anesthesia, and end-tidal CO2 concentration was determined at the same time intervals. Supplemental oxygen was not provided.

Results

Apnea was observed for 10 to 30 seconds after propofol administration, which induced a decrease in heart rate; however, the changes were not significant. Compared with baseline values, respiratory rate was significantly decreased at 4 minutes after administration of propofol and thereafter. Systolic, mean, and diastolic pressures decreased over the infusion period, but the changes were not significant. Mean arterial blood pressure decreased by 30% after 15 minutes of anesthesia; end-tidal CO2 concentration increased from baseline values after 30 minutes; PO2 was significantly decreased at 5 minutes after induction and thereafter; PCO2 was significantly (P< 0.05) increased after 15 minutes of anesthesia; and arterial oxygen saturation was significantly (P < 0.05) decreased at the end of anesthesia. Two male turkeys developed severe transient hypoxemia, 1 at 5 and the other at 15 minutes after induction. Time to standing after discontinuation of propofol infusion was 11 ± 6 minutes. Recovery was smooth and unremarkable.

Conclusion

Propofol is an effective agent for IV induction and maintenance of anesthesia in wild turkeys, and is useful for short procedures or where the use of inhalational agents is contraindicated. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:1014–1017)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine ECG and echocardiographic measurements in healthy anesthetized Grevy's zebras (Equus grevyi).

Animals—20 healthy zebras.

Procedures—Auscultation, base-apex ECG, and echocardiography were performed on anesthetized zebras.

Results—Low-grade systolic murmurs were detected in the left basilar region in 4 of 20 zebras. Evaluation of ECGs from 19 zebras revealed sinus rhythm with a predominantly negative QRS complex and a mean ± SD heart rate of 67 ± 10 beats/min. Echocardiograms of sufficient image quality were obtained for 16 zebras. Interventricular septal thickness in diastole, left ventricular chamber in diastole and systole, left atrial diameter, and left ventricular mass were significantly and moderately correlated with estimated body weight (r values ranged from 0.650 to 0.884). Detectable swirling of blood in the right and sometimes the left ventricles was detected in 9 of 16 zebras, whereas physiologic regurgitation of blood was detected for the aortic valve in 3 zebras, pulmonary valve in 2 zebras, mitral valve in 2 zebras, and tricuspid valve in 1 zebra.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of this study provide reference information for use in the cardiac evaluation of anesthetized Grevy's zebras.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To analyze the 7a7b genes of the feline coronavirus (FCoV) of cheetahs, which are believed to play a role in virulence of this virus.

Sample Population—Biologic samples collected during a 4-year period from 5 cheetahs at the same institution and at 1 time point from 4 cheetahs at different institutions.

Procedures—Samples were first screened for FCoV via a reverse transcription-PCR procedure involving primers that encompassed the 3′-untranslated region. Samples that yielded positive assay results were analyzed by use of primers that targeted the 7a7b open reading frames. The nucleotide sequences of the 7a7b amplification products were determined and analyzed.

Results—In most isolates, substantial deletional mutations in the 7a gene were detected that would result in aberrant or no expression of the 7a product because of altered reading frames. Although the 7b gene was also found to contain mutations, these were primarily point mutations resulting in minor amino acid changes. The coronavirus associated with 1 cheetah with feline infectious peritonitis had intact 7a and 7b genes.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The data suggest that mutations arise readily in the 7a region and may remain stable in FCoV of cheetahs. In contrast, an intact 7b gene may be necessary for in vivo virus infection and replication. Persistent infection with FCoV in a cheetah population results in continued virus circulation and may lead to a quasispecies of virus variants.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine the incidence of and risk factors for clinical feline herpesvirus (FHV) infection in zoo-housed cheetahs and determine whether dam infection was associated with offspring infection.

DESIGN Retrospective cohort study.

ANIMALS 144 cheetah cubs born in 6 zoos from 1988 through 2007.

PROCEDURES Data were extracted from the health records of cheetahs and their dams to identify incident cases of clinical FHV infection and estimate incidence from birth to 18 months of age. Univariate and multivariable Cox proportional hazards models, controlling for correlations among cheetahs with the same dam, were used to identify risk factors for incident FHV infection.

RESULTS Cumulative incidence of FHV infection in cheetah cubs was 35% (50/144). No significant association between dam and offspring infection was identified in any model. Factors identified as significant through multivariable analysis varied by age group. For cheetahs up to 3 months of age, the most important predictor of FHV infection was having a dam that had received a preparturition FHV vaccine regimen that included a modified-live virus vaccine versus a dam that had received no preparturition vaccine. Other risk factors included being from a small litter, being born to a primiparous dam, and male sex.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE This study provided the first population-level characterization of the incidence of and risk factors for FHV infection in cheetahs, and findings confirmed the importance of this disease. Recognition that clinical FHV infection in the dam was not a significant predictor of disease in cubs and identification of other significant factors have implications for disease management.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
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Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association