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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To determine effects of the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor benazepril in cats with induced renal insufficiency.

Animals—32 cats.

Procedure—Renal mass was surgically reduced, and cats were assigned to 1 of 4 eight-cat groups. Group 1 received placebo, whereas groups 2, 3, and 4 received benazepril hydrochloride orally once daily for approximately 6.5 months at the following doses: group 2, 0.25 to 0.50 mg/kg of body weight; group 3, 0.50 to 1.00 mg/kg; and group 4, 1.00 to 2.00 mg/kg. Arterial blood pressures, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and renal plasma flow were determined before treatment and during the treatment period. Other determinants of renal hemodynamics were measured by use of micropuncture techniques. Renal biopsy specimens were examined microscopically.

Results—Compared with cats that received placebo, mean systolic arterial blood pressure was significantly less and GFR significantly greater in cats that received benazepril. Glomerular capillary pressure and the ratio of efferent to afferent arteriolar vascular resistance were also significantly less in treated cats. However, histologic differences in renal specimens were not detected.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Treatment with benazepril sustained single nephron GFR in remnant nephrons of cats with induced renal insufficiency. Administration of benazepril was also associated with a small but significant reduction in degree of systemic hypertension and an increase in whole kidney GFR. Benazepril may be an effective treatment to slow the rate of progression of renal failure in cats with renal disease. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:375–383)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To determine whether a herpesvirus isolated from the semen of a North American elk was related to bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1).

Sample Population—Semen from 1 healthy bull elk and 2 subtypes of BHV-1 (BHV-1.1 and BHV-1.2).

Procedures—A virus with cytopathic and electron microscopic characteristics consistent with an alphaherpesvirus was isolated from elk semen, using fetal bovine kidney cells. Cross-neutralization assays were performed with antisera against BHV-1 and the elk herpesvirus (ElkHV). Restriction endonuclease digests of ElkHV DNA were compared with digests of BHV-1.1 and BHV-1.2 DNA. A portion of the ElkHV DNA polymerase gene was amplified with consensus primers by use of the polymerase chain reaction and sequenced. Sequence was compared with known sequences of other herpesviruses. An immunoperoxidase monolayer assay was used to determine reactivities of 22 BHV–1-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAb) against ElkHV. In vitro neutralizing activities of the reactive mAb were determined by use of a microneutralization assay.

Results—Results of cross-neutralization assays indicated that ElkHV was serologically related to BHV-1. Endonuclease digestion of ElkHV DNA generated fragments that were distinct from those of BHV-1. Nucleotide sequencing confirmed that ElkHV is an alphaherpesvirus closely related to but distinct from BHV-1. Six of 22 BHV–1-specific mAb reacted against ElkHV; 2 of these 6 also neutralized in vitro infectivity of ElkHV.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—ElkHV is antigenically and genetically distinguishable from BHV-1. However, the viruses are serologically related and share at least 6 antigenic determinants, one of which is a major neutralizing determinant. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:1614–1618)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research



To evaluate species identification and rabies virus (RABV) characterization among samples from bats submitted for rabies testing in the United States and assess whether a standardized approach to specimen selection for RABV characterization could enhance detection of a sentinel event in virus dissemination among bats.


United States public health rabies surveillance system data collected in January 2010 through December 2015.


The number of rabies-tested bats for which species was reported and the number of RABV-positive samples for which virus characterization would likely provide information regarding introduction of novel RABV variants and translocation and host-shift events were calculated. These specimens were designated as specimens of epizootiological importance (SEIs). Additionally, the estimated test load that public health laboratories could expect if all SEIs underwent RABV characterization was determined.


Species was reported for 74,928 of 160,017 (47%) bats submitted for rabies testing. Identified SEIs were grouped in 3 subcategories, namely nonindigenous bats; bats in southern border states, Florida, Puerto Rico, and the US Virgin Islands; and bats of species that are not commonly found to be inflected with RABV. Annually, 692 (95% CI, 600 to 784) SEIs were identified, of which only 295 (95% CI, 148 to 442) underwent virus characterization. Virus characterization of all SEIs would be expected to increase public health laboratories’ overall test load by 397 (95% CI, 287 to 506) samples each year.


Species identification and RABV characterization may aid detection of a sentinel event in bat RABV dissemination. With additional resources, RABV characterization of all SEIs as a standardized approach to testing could contribute to knowledge of circulating bat RABV variants.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association