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Abstract

Objective—To determine whether administration of meloxicam or acetylsalicylic acid alters glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in cats with renal azotemia.

Animals—6 young adult cats.

Procedures—3 sexually intact male cats and 3 sexually intact female cats had surgically reduced renal mass and azotemia comparable to International Renal Interest Society chronic kidney disease stages 2 and 3. Renal function was evaluated by measurement of serum creatinine concentration, urinary clearance of exogenously administered creatinine, and the urine protein-to-creatinine concentration ratio (UP:C). Measurements taken in cats receiving placebo at the beginning and end of the study were compared with results obtained at the end of 7 days of treatment with either meloxicam (0.2 mg/kg, SC, on day 1; 0.1 mg/kg, SC, on days 2 to 7) or acetylsalicylic acid (20 mg/kg, PO, on days 1, 4, and 7).

Results—No significant treatment effects on urinary clearance of exogenously administered creatinine, serum creatinine concentration, or UP:C were detected. Mean ± SEM serum creatinine concentration and urinary clearance of exogenously administered creatinine measurements following 7 days of treatment with meloxicam (serum creatinine concentration, 2.67 ± 0.17 mg/dL; urinary clearance of exogenously administered creatinine, 1.34 ± 0.08 mL/min/kg) and acetylsalicylic acid (serum creatinine concentration, 2.62 ± 0.12 mg/dL; urinary clearance of exogenously administered creatinine, 1.35 ± 0.07 mL/min/kg) were not significantly different from the mean baseline values for these variables (serum creatinine concentration, 2.77 ± 0.14 mg/dL; urinary clearance of exogenously administered creatinine, 1.36 ± 0.07 mL/min/kg).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Neither meloxicam nor acetylsalicylic acid had a measurable effect on urinary clearance of exogenously administered creatinine, serum creatinine concentration, or UP:C. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that GFR of euvolemic cats with normal or reduced renal function is not dependent on cyclooxygenase function.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To identify courses in which first-year veterinary students struggled academically and to survey veterinarians as to their opinions on existing prerequisite courses and proposed alternatives.

DESIGN Electronic surveys.

SAMPLE Associate deans for academic affairs at colleges of veterinary medicine and practicing veterinarians in North America and the Caribbean.

PROCEDURES Surveys were sent to associate deans of academic affairs seeking information on courses in which first-year veterinary students most commonly struggled academically. The 6 courses most commonly listed as prerequisites for admission to veterinary college were identified, and practitioners were asked to rank the relative importance of those courses for preparing students for veterinary college and to rank the importance of 7 potential alternative courses.

RESULTS Data were obtained from 21 associate deans and 771 practicing veterinarians. First-year veterinary students most commonly struggled academically in anatomy, physiology, and histology courses, but these courses were rarely included as prerequisites for admission. Practicing veterinarians agreed that anatomy and physiology should be considered as possible alternatives to 1 or more current prerequisite courses, such as organic chemistry and physics.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE First-year veterinary students commonly encountered academic difficulties in anatomy, physiology, and histology. Because few surveyed veterinary colleges include these courses as prerequisites for admission, many students were exposed to this material for the first time as veterinary students, potentially adding to their academic difficulties and causing stress and anxiety. To help address this situation, veterinary colleges might consider replacing 1 or more current prerequisite courses (eg, organic chemistry and physics) with anatomy, physiology, and histology.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine effects of variations in dietary intake of sodium chloride (NaCl) on systemic arterial blood pressure (ABP) in cats with normal and reduced renal function.

Animals—21 adult cats (7 with intact kidneys [control cats; group C], 7 with unilateral renal infarction with contralateral nephrectomy [remnant-kidney model; group RK], and 7 with unilateral renal infarction and contralateral renal wrapping and concurrent oral administration of amlodipine [remnant-wrap model; group WA]).

Procedure—All cats were sequentially fed 3 diets that differed only in NaCl content (50, 100, or 200 mg of Na/kg); each diet was fed for 7 days. The ABP was recorded continuously by radiotelemetry, and renal function (glomerular filtration rate [GFR]) was determined on the sixth day of each feeding period.

Results—Dietary supplementation with NaCl did not affect ABP, but it increased GFR in groups C and WA. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone axis was activated in groups RK and WA at the lowest NaCl intake, but supplementation with NaCl suppressed this activation in group WA. The lowest NaCl intake was associated with hypokalemia and a high fractional excretion of potassium that decreased in response to supplementation with NaCl. Arterial baroreceptor resetting was evident after chronic hypertension but was not modified by dietary supplementation with NaCl.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Low NaCl intake was associated with inappropriate kaliuresis, reduced GFR, and activation of the renin-angiotensinaldosterone axis without evidence of a beneficial effect on ABP. Therefore, this common dietary maneuver could contribute to hypokalemic nephropathy and progressive renal injury in cats. ( Am J Vet Res 2004;65:620–627)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the effects of carprofen and etodolac on renal function in euvolemic dogs and dogs with extracellular fluid volume depletion induced via administration of furosemide.

Animals—12 female Beagles.

Procedures—Dogs received a placebo, furosemide, carprofen, etodolac, furosemide and carprofen, and furosemide and etodolac. The order in which dogs received treatments was determined via a randomization procedure. Values of urine specific gravity, various plasma biochemical variables, glomerular filtration rate (GFR [urinary clearance of creatinine]), and renal plasma flow (urinary clearance of para-aminohippuric acid) were determined before and after 8 days of drug administration. A washout time of approximately 12 days was allowed between treatment periods.

Results—Administration of furosemide, furosemide and carprofen, and furosemide and etodolac caused changes in urine specific gravity and values of plasma biochemical variables. Administration of carprofen or etodolac alone did not have a significant effect on renal plasma flow or GFR. Concurrent administration of furosemide and carprofen or furosemide and etodolac caused a significant decrease in GFR. After 12-day washout periods, mean values of GFR were similar to values before drug administration for all treatments.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated GFR decreased after 8 days of concurrent administration of furosemide and carprofen or furosemide and etodolac to dogs. Administration of preferential cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors to dogs with extracellular fluid volume depletion or to dogs treated with diuretics may transiently impair renal function.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the effect of renal autograft ischemia and reperfusion associated with renal transplantation on pulse rate and pressure and arterial blood pressure variables in clinically normal cats.

Animals—10 cats.

Procedures—A radiotelemetric implant was placed in each cat to measure hemodynamic variables; baseline data were recorded before surgery. Standard heterotopic renal implantation and contralateral nephrectomy were performed (day 0). Autografts were stored in cold sucrose phosphate solution for 30 minutes (n = 5) or 3 hours (5); cats were anephric during this period. Hemodynamic variables were recorded every 5 minutes for up to 16 days after surgery; mean daily values were calculated.

Results—Data from 6 cats were available for analysis. Two cats developed ureteral obstructions and became azotemic at 111 and 197 hours after kidney reperfusion. Mean serum creatinine and BUN concentrations were greater than baseline values on days 1 and 2. Although changes from baseline hemodynamic values were detected in some cats, arterial blood pressure measurements did not change significantly from baseline at any time point. Compared with baseline data, mean pulse rate was increased on days 1 and 2 and days 6 through 12; mean pulse pressure was increased on days 1 and 2.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In clinically normal cats, hypertension was not induced by clinically relevant periods of ischemia-reperfusion injury of renal autografts and was not an inherent consequence of the transplantation process. Causes of marked posttransplantation hypertension in cats with chronic kidney disease require further investigation.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine effects of the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor benazepril in cats with induced renal insufficiency.

Animals—32 cats.

Procedure—Renal mass was surgically reduced, and cats were assigned to 1 of 4 eight-cat groups. Group 1 received placebo, whereas groups 2, 3, and 4 received benazepril hydrochloride orally once daily for approximately 6.5 months at the following doses: group 2, 0.25 to 0.50 mg/kg of body weight; group 3, 0.50 to 1.00 mg/kg; and group 4, 1.00 to 2.00 mg/kg. Arterial blood pressures, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and renal plasma flow were determined before treatment and during the treatment period. Other determinants of renal hemodynamics were measured by use of micropuncture techniques. Renal biopsy specimens were examined microscopically.

Results—Compared with cats that received placebo, mean systolic arterial blood pressure was significantly less and GFR significantly greater in cats that received benazepril. Glomerular capillary pressure and the ratio of efferent to afferent arteriolar vascular resistance were also significantly less in treated cats. However, histologic differences in renal specimens were not detected.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Treatment with benazepril sustained single nephron GFR in remnant nephrons of cats with induced renal insufficiency. Administration of benazepril was also associated with a small but significant reduction in degree of systemic hypertension and an increase in whole kidney GFR. Benazepril may be an effective treatment to slow the rate of progression of renal failure in cats with renal disease. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:375–383)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To compare the attenuation of the angiotensin I–induced blood pressure response by once-daily oral administration of various doses of angiotensin receptor blockers (irbesartan, telmisartan, and losartan), benazepril hydrochloride, or lactose monohydrate (placebo) for 8 days in clinically normal cats.

ANIMALS 6 healthy cats (approx 17 months old) with surgically implanted arterial telemetric blood pressure–measuring catheters.

PROCEDURES Cats were administered orally the placebo or each of the drug treatments (benazepril [2.5 mg/cat], irbesartan [6 and 10 mg/kg], telmisartan [0.5, 1, and 3 mg/kg], and losartan [2.5 mg/kg]) once daily for 8 days in a crossover study. Approximately 90 minutes after capsule administration on day 8, each cat was anesthetized and arterial blood pressure measurements were recorded before and after IV administration of each of 4 boluses of angiotensin I (20, 100, 500, and 1,000 ng/kg). This protocol was repeated 24 hours after benazepril treatment and telmisartan (3 mg/kg) treatment. Differences in the angiotensin I–induced change in systolic arterial blood pressure (ΔSBP) among treatments were determined.

RESULTS At 90 minutes after capsule administration, only losartan did not significantly reduce ΔSBP in response to the 3 higher angiotensin doses, compared with placebo. Among drug treatments, telmisartan (3 mg/kg dosage) attenuated ΔSBP to a significantly greater degree than benazepril and all other treatments. At 24 hours, telmisartan was more effective than benazepril (mean ± SEM ΔSBP, 15.7 ± 1.9 mm Hg vs 55.9 ± 12.42 mm Hg, respectively).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that telmisartan administration may have advantages over benazepril administration for cats with renal or cardiovascular disease.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor enalapril would lower systemic arterial and glomerular capillary pressure and reduce the magnitude of renal injury in a canine model of renal insufficiency.

Animals—18 adult dogs that had renal mass reduced by partial nephrectomy.

Procedure—After surgical reduction of renal mass and baseline measurements, dogs in 2 equal groups received either placebo (group 1) or enalapril (0.5 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h; group 2) for 6 months.

Results—Values for systemic mean arterial blood pressure determined by indirect and direct measurement after 3 and 6 months of treatment, respectively, were significantly lower in group 2 than in group 1. During treatment, monthly urine protein-to-creatinine ratios were consistently lower in group 2 than in group 1, although values were significantly different only at 3 months. At 6 months, significant reduction in glomerular capillary pressure in group 2 was detected, compared with group 1, but glomerular filtration rate in group 2 was not compromised. Glomerular hypertrophy, assessed by measurement of planar surface area of glomeruli, was similar in both groups. Glomerular and tubulointerstitial lesions were significantly less in group 2, compared with group 1.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Data suggest that inhibition of angiotensin converting enzyme was effective in modulating progressive renal injury, which was associated with reduction of glomerular and systemic hypertension and proteinuria but not glomerular hypertrophy. Inhibition of angiotensin converting enzyme may be effective for modulating progression of renal disease in dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:321–327)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare 2 techniques of inducing combined renal insufficiency and systemic hypertension in cats.

Animals—22 cats 6 to 12 months of age.

Procedure—Cats were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups. Control (C) group cats had 2 intact kidneys, remnant kidney (RK) group cats underwent unilateral partial renal infarction and contralateral nephrectomy, and remnant-wrap (W) group cats underwent unilateral partial renal infarction and partial abtation and wrapping of the contralateral kidney. Systemic arterial blood pressure (BP) was measured continuously by use of implanted radiotelemetric devices. Renal function was assessed via determination of glomerular filtration rate, measurement of serum creatinine and BUN concentrations, and determination of urine protein-to-creatinine ratio (UP/C). Serum aldosterone concentration and plasma renin activity were measured on day 75.

Results—Systolic BP was significantly higher in groups RK and W than in group C, and systolic BP was significantly higher in group W than in group RK. Serum aldosterone concentration and plasma renin activity were significantly higher in group W, compared with groups C and RK. Glomerular filtration rate was significantly lower in groups RK and W, compared with group C. Histologic indices of renal injury and UP/C were significantly higher in group W, compared with groups C and RK.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Hypertensive renal insufficiency in group W was characterized by marked sustained systemic hypertension, decreased renal function, proteinuria, activation of the reninangiotensin-aldosterone axis, and renal structural injury. Results support the hypothesis that marked systemic hypertension, activation of the reninangiotensin- aldosterone axis, and proteinuria may damage the kidney of cats with preexisting renal insufficiency. ( Am J Vet Res 2004;65:1006–1013)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Inferential studies to investigate the health of rare, exotic, or companion animals are often challenging because sample groups of sufficiently large sizes are difficult to obtain. This may be a result of limited availability of exotic or endangered animals or the ethical desire to limit the number of animals involved in painful or terminal studies. In standard study designs with adequate statistical power, the number of animals required for inclusion is often greater than the number that can be obtained or feasibly managed. Also, the cost of providing long-term care for research animals is often greater than the available funding

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research