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  • Author or Editor: Scarlett M. Sumner x
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A 1-year-old externally sexually intact female Great Dane was referred for further evaluation of abnormal and underdeveloped internal reproductive organs.


Physical examination findings included a cranioventrally displaced vulva and a grade 2/6 left apical systolic heart murmur. No uterus or ovaries were identified during abdominal ultrasonography. Computed tomography with retrograde vaginourethrography revealed an underdeveloped uterus and possible left intra-abdominal gonad. Karyotyping revealed mixed sex chromosomes (70% XY and 30% XX). Analysis of a serum sample yielded positive results for anti-Müllerian hormone; other findings included mid range estradiol concentration (48.2 pg/mL [within reference intervals for sexually intact and neutered males and females]), low progesterone concentration (< 0.2 ng/mL [within reference intervals for anestrous females]), and low testosterone concentration (< 20 ng/dL [similar to the expected concentration in neutered males]). Overall, the results of the sex hormone analyses were consistent with findings for either a sexually intact female or a neutered male dog. The dog's cardiac structure and function were echocardiographically normal.


The dog was anesthetized and underwent laparoscopic gonadectomy. The gonads, although abnormal and underdeveloped, were readily identified intraoperatively and successfully removed. On the basis of histologic findings, the removed gonads were confirmed to be rudimentary testicles. The dog recovered from anesthesia and surgery without complications.


Laparoscopic surgery was effective for visualization of abnormal and hypoplastic reproductive organs when abdominal ultrasonography and CT were of limited diagnostic usefulness, and laparoscopic surgery allowed straightforward gonadectomy in a 78,XX/78,XY chimeric dog.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To develop a topical sildenafil hydrogel and evaluate its effect on wound healing in dogs.


6 purpose-bred, sexually intact, adult Beagles.


Hydrogels containing sildenafil citrate, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, propylene glycol, and poloxamer 407 were developed. Four excision wounds were created along the dorsum of the dogs. Each wound was treated for 21 days with a nonadherent bandage (C) or with a hydrogel containing 0% (G), 5% (5S), or 10% (10S) sildenafil. Daily bandage changes with wound imaging were performed. Biopsy specimens were collected 5 times.


Hydrogels were homogenous at room temperature and released > 90% of the sildenafil within 8 hours in vitro. Time to first granulation tissue was significantly shorter for the sildenafil groups (mean ± SD, 2.8 ± 0.8 days [5S and 10S]), compared with the control groups (5.2 ± 0.4 days [C] and 6.3 ± 1.4 days [G]). The G wounds had a 10% to 14% lower contraction rate, compared with the C, 5S, and 10S wounds. 5S wounds had a total wound area 0.7 ± 0.3 cm2 larger than 10S wounds. No significant differences were present when C wounds were compared with 5S and 10S wounds for total wound area, contraction, or epithelialization. Histologic acute inflammatory scores were higher for 5S and 10S wounds in the early and late stages of wound healing, with higher reparative scores on day 7. Neovascularization was higher for 10S wounds on day 7 and 14.


The topical sildenafil hydrogel promoted early granulation tissue, which may be beneficial for secondary wound closure in clinical settings.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research