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To evaluate effects of intra-articular (IA) injections of bufexamac on amphotericin B-induced aseptic arthritis in horses.


24 Standardbred horses.


Aseptic arthritis was induced in the right intercarpal joint by IA injection of amphotericin B (20 mg). One week later (day 0), horses were randomly assigned to four 6-horse treatment groups and treated with IA injection of 10, 20, or 40 mg of bufexamac suspension (20 mg/ml) or 2.0 ml of sterile saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (control). The treatment was repeated once after 7 days. Clinical lameness examinations and synovial fluid (SF) analyses were done prior to induction and at weekly intervals for 5 weeks (days 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28).


Intra-articular injection of amphotericin B consistently resulted in aseptic arthritis with a lameness index (mean ± SEM; scale 0 to 5) of 2.7 ± 0.17 on day 0. Intra-articular injections of 20 and 40 mg of bufexamac significantly reduced the day-28 lameness index, compared with control values. Amphotericin B administration also resulted in a significant increase in SF β-glucuronidase (BGLUC) activity, and IA injections of bufexamac significantly reduced day-28 activity of this enzyme, compared with control values.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

2 IA injections of 20 or 40 mg of bufexamac, at weekly intervals, were effective in reducing clinical signs of lameness and SF activity of BGLUC associated with amphotericin B-induced carpal joint arthritis. Bufexamac possesses anti-inflammatory properties useful for IA treatment of lameness associated with aseptic arthritis in horses. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:1467–1473)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To evaluate the adverse effects of carprofen in dogs after oral administration for 2 months.

Design—Prospective, randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

Animals—22 dogs with osteoarthritis in the hip or elbow joint.

Procedure—13 dogs received orally administered carprofen daily for 2 months, and 9 dogs received a placebo for 2 months. Dogs were weighed, and serum and urine samples were collected before initiation of treatment and 4 and 8 weeks after initiation of treatment. Serum concentrations of total protein, albumin, urea, and creatinine and serum activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were measured. Urinary ALP-to-creatinine, γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT)-to-creatinine, and protein-to-creatinine ratios were calculated. Dogs were observed by owners for adverse effects.

Results—Serum protein and albumin concentrations were lower in treated dogs than in those that received placebo at 4 weeks, but not at 8 weeks. No changes were observed in serum urea or creatinine concentrations; ALP or ALT activity; or urinary ALP-to-creatinine, GGT-to-creatinine, or protein-to-creatinine ratios. Dogs' weights did not change. Severity of vomiting, diarrhea, and skin reactions did not differ between groups, but appetite was better in dogs receiving carprofen than in dogs in the placebo group.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—It is possible that the transient decreases in serum protein and albumin concentrations in dogs that received carprofen were caused by altered mucosal permeability of the gastrointestinal tract because no indications of renal or hepatic toxicity were observed. Carprofen appeared to be well tolerated by dogs after 2 months of administration.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To evaluate the effects of intra-articular (IA) injections of bufexamac in horses, focusing particularly on the effects of bufexamac on articular cartilage.

Animals—20 Standardbreds.

Procedure—Horses were randomly allocated into 4 groups consisting of 5 horses each, and 20, 60, or 100 mg of bufexamac or 1 ml of sterile saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (control) was injected into 1 intercarpal joint at weekly intervals for 6 treatments (days 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35). Clinical signs and results of hematologic, serum biochemical, and synovial fluid (SF) analyses and radiography were used to evaluate treatment effects. On day 49, all horses were euthanatized; gross necropsy and histologic examinations of internal organs and articular tissues were performed. Glycosaminoglycan concentration of the articular cartilage was evaluated in safranin O-stained sections by use of a semiquantitative microspectrophotometric method.

Results—No systemic signs were observed. Temporary mild to moderate heat and effusion were the only clinical signs observed in a number of joints after IA injections and more often only in the 100 mg group, compared with controls. The 100 mg dose resulted in significant increases in SF WBC counts, with relative neutrophilia and SF total protein concentration 24 hours after injection (day 1). No lesions suggestive of toxic effects were detected at necropsy or on histologic examination. No changes in articular cartilage glycosaminoglycan concentration were detected.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Six injections of 20, 60, or 100 mg of bufexamac at weekly intervals did not cause any untoward systemic or local effects. These data suggest that bufexamac is a safe nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug for IA administration in horses. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1629–1635)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To assess the safety of endoscopic retrograde pancreatography (ERP) in dogs by performing repeated clinical examinations and laboratory analyses of serum amylase, lipase, canine trypsin-like immunoreactivity (cTLI), and canine pancreatic elastase 1 (cE1) after the procedure.

Animals—7 healthy Beagles.

Procedure—Clinical examinations were performed and blood samples obtained for serum enzyme determinations before and at intervals (10 minutes; 2, 4, and 6 hours; and 1, 2, and 3 days) after ERP.

Results—Repeated clinical examinations revealed no signs of ERP-induced complications in the 7 dogs. Results of repeated laboratory tests indicated a transient increase in serum values of amylase, lipase, and cTLI but not cE1. Mean ± SD lipase activity increased from 120.7 ± 116.4 U/L to 423.4 ± 243.1 U/L at 4 hours after ERP. Median serum cTLI concentration increased from 16.2 µg/L (range, 7.7 to 26.5 µg/L) to 34.9 µg/L (range, 16.6 to 68.3 µg/L) 10 minutes after ERP. Enzyme values returned to baseline levels at the latest on day 2 in 6 of 7 dogs. Highest values for serum amylase, lipase, and cTLI and their delayed return to baseline values were detected in 1 dog with contrast filling of the pancreatic parenchyma.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that ERP appears to be a safe imaging technique of pancreatic ducts in healthy dogs, although it induced a transient increase in serum values of pancreatic enzymes. In dogs, repeated clinical examinations and serum enzyme determinations can be used to monitor ERP-induced complications such as acute pancreatitis. ( Am J Vet Res 2004;65:616–619)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To provide values for gastrointestinal permeability and absorptive function tests (GIPFTs) with chromium 51 (51Cr)-labeled EDTA, lactulose, rhamnose, d-xylose, 3-O-methyl-d-glucose, and sucrose in Beagles and to evaluate potential correlations between markers.

Animals—19 healthy adult male Beagles.

Procedures—A test solution containing 3.7 MBq of 51Cr-labeled EDTA, 2 g of lactulose, 2 g of rhamnose, 2 g of d-xylose, 1 g of 3-O-methyl-d-glucose, and 8 g of sucrose was administered intragastrically to each dog. Urinary recovery of each probe was determined 6 hours after administration.

Results—Mean ± SD (range) percentage urinary recovery was 6.3 ± 1.6% (4.3% to 9.7%) for 51Cr-labeled EDTA, 3.3 ± 1.1% (1.7% to 5.3%) for lactulose, 25.5 ± 5.0% (16.7% to 36.9%) for rhamnose, and 58.8% ± 11.0% (40.1% to 87.8%) for 3-O-methyl-d-glucose. Mean (range) recovery ratio was 0.25 ± 0.06 (0.17 to 0.37) for 51Cr-labeled EDTA to rhamnose, 0.13 ± 0.04 (0.08 to 0.23) for lactulose to rhamnose, and 0.73 ± 0.09 (0.60 to 0.90) for d-xylose to 3-O-methyl-d-glucose. Median (range) percentage urinary recovery was 40.3% (31.6% to 62.7%) for d-xylose and 0% (0% to 0.8%) for sucrose.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Reference values in healthy adult male Beagles for 6 of the most commonly used GIPFT markers were determined. The correlation between results for 51Cr-labeled EDTA and lactulose was not as prominent as that reported for humans and cats; thus, investigators should be cautious in the use and interpretation of GIPFTs performed with sugar probes in dogs with suspected intestinal dysbiosis.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To evaluate early indicators of renal tissue destruction and changes in urinary enzyme activities in sheep during the first hours after acute kidney injury induced by administration of an overdose of an NSAID.

Animals—12 adult female sheep.

Procedures—Acute kidney injury was induced in 6 sheep by administration of ketoprofen (30 mg/kg, IV) and detected by evaluation of urinary protein concentration, iohexol clearance, and results of histologic examination. Six sheep served as control animals. Blood and urine samples were collected for up to 24 hours after administration of ketoprofen. Plasma concentrations of urea, creatinine, albumin, and total protein; plasma activities of alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, and MMP-9; and urinary creatinine and protein concentrations, specific gravity, and activities of alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, GGT lactate dehydrogenase, N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), MMP-2, and MMP-9 were measured. Urinary protein concentration and enzyme activities were normalized on the basis of urinary creatinine concentrations and reported as ratios.

Results—Many urinary enzyme-to-creatinine ratios increased before the plasma creatinine concentration exceeded the reference value. Urine NAG, lactate dehydrogenase, and acid phosphatase activities were increased beginning at 2 hours after ketoprofen administration, and alkaline phosphatase, GGT, and MMP-2 activities were increased beginning at 4 hours after ketoprofen administration. Most peak urinary enzyme-to-creatinine ratios were detected earlier than were the highest plasma creatinine and urea concentrations.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Urinary enzyme activities were sensitive early indicators of acute kidney injury induced by an overdose of an NSAID in sheep. (Am J Vet Res 2010;71:1246–1252)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research