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  • Author or Editor: Sari H. Mölsä x
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Objective—To evaluate, by means of an owner questionnaire, long-term outcome and prevalence of chronic pain after cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) surgery in dogs.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—253 dogs with surgically treated CCL rupture.

Procedures—Data from surgical records of dogs that underwent surgical repair of CCL between 2004 and 2006 were reviewed. An owner questionnaire, including the validated Helsinki chronic pain index (HCPI), served to evaluate long-term outcome and prevalence of chronic pain after surgical repair by means of intracapsular, extracapsular, or osteotomy techniques. Additional questions inquired about recovery and rehabilitation after surgery, current well-being, medications, and adjunct treatments.

Results—Of 507 questionnaires, 272 (53.6%) were returned; 19 were excluded because of incomplete answers. Mean ± SD follow-up time was 2.7 ± 0.8 years (range, 1.3 to 4.5 years). Owners considered surgical outcome as excellent in 122 of 226 (54.0%) dogs, good in 97 (42.9%), fair in 0 (0%), and poor in 7 (3.1%). At follow-up, the mean ± SD HCPI for 206 dogs was 8.9 ± 6.3 (range, 0 to 24). Of these 206 dogs, 64 (31.1%) had an HCPI ≥ 12, indicating chronic pain. Mean HCPI in dogs with a good outcome (11.8 ± 5.4; 95% confidence interval, 10.6 to 12.9) was significantly higher than that for dogs with an excellent outcome (6.2 ± 5.7; 95% confidence interval, 5.1 to 7.2). Owner-reported postoperative lameness was significantly shorter after osteotomy techniques, compared with lameness duration after the intracapsular technique.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—On the basis of owner assessment, long-term chronic pain was found in approximately 30% of dogs after CCL repair.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To compare the recurrence rate after herniorrhaphy of canine perineal hernia (PH) using elevation of the internal obturator muscle (EIOM) or fascia lata graft (FLG) and assess how clinical signs related to defecation evolve during 12 months postoperatively.


66 client-owned male dogs undergoing PH surgery between March 1, 2017, and December 31, 2020.


Dogs were randomized into 2 groups (EIOM = 36; FLG = 30) applying 2 stratification factors: preoperative bladder location and the defecation signs score (DSS). Follow-up visits were at 2 weeks and 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. The main outcome, the recurrence of PH was evaluated by rectal examination. We evaluated the noninferiority of FLG to EIOM from the difference in recurrence proportions between the techniques (95% CI), comparing the CI with a pre-defined noninferiority margin (15%). To evaluate defecation signs, the DSS was calculated from the owner questionnaire and assessed with a linear mixed model (P < .05 significant).


In 63 dogs attending the 12-month follow-up, the recurrence rate was 8.8% (3/34) in the EIOM and 10.3% (3/29) in the FLG group. The CI (–11.94% to 14.99%) was below the pre-defined margin, indicating the noninferiority of FLG. After surgery, the DSS decreased (P < .001), remaining low during the follow-up.


FLG was non-inferior to EIOM when considering recurrence. The DSS decreased postoperatively and complications were uncommon. FLG is a useful alternative for the treatment of canine PH.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


OBJECTIVE To evaluate effects of the peripherally acting α2-adrenoceptor antagonist MK-467 on cardiopulmonary function in sheep sedated with medetomidine and ketamine.

ANIMALS 9 healthy adult female sheep.

PROCEDURES Each animal received an IM injection of a combination of medetomidine (30 μg/kg) and ketamine (1 mg/kg; Med-Ket) alone and Med-Ket and 3 doses of MK-467 (150, 300, and 600 μg/kg) in a randomized blinded 4-way crossover study. Atipamezole (150 μg/kg, IM) was administered 60 minutes later to reverse sedation. Cardiopulmonary variables and sedation scores were recorded, and drug concentrations in plasma were analyzed. Data were analyzed with a repeated-measures ANCOVA and 1-way ANOVA. Reference limits for the equivalence of sedation scores were set at 0.8 and 1.25.

RESULTS Heart rate, cardiac output, and Pao2 decreased and mean arterial blood pressure, central venous pressure, and systemic vascular resistance increased after Med-Ket alone. Administration of MK-467 significantly alleviated these effects, except for the decrease in cardiac output. After sedation was reversed with atipamezole, no significant differences were detected in cardiopulmonary variables among the treatments. Administration of MK-467 did not significantly alter plasma concentrations of medetomidine, ketamine, norketamine, or atipamezole. Sedation as determined on the basis of overall sedation scores was similar among treatments.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Concurrent administration of MK-467 alleviated cardiopulmonary effects in sheep sedated with Med-Ket without affecting sedation or reversal with atipamezole.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research