Objective—To evaluate antiviral activity and toxicity
of recombinant human interferon alfa-2a in calves persistently
infected with noncytopathic type 1 bovine
viral diarrhea virus (BVDV).
Animals—5 Holstein heifers, 4 to 12 months of age.
Procedures—Calves persistently infected with noncytopathic
type 1 BVDV were treated with recombinant
human interferon alfa-2a every other day for 12
weeks. Viral loads were measured during the treatment
period and compared with pre- and post-treatment
values. Complete physical examinations were
performed weekly, and calves were observed daily for
signs of systemic illness. Complete blood counts and
serum biochemical analyses were performed before,
during, and after the treatment period. Because
calves developed anemia during the treatment period,
bone marrow biopsy specimens were collected. Antirecombinant
human interferon alfa-2a antibody concentrations
in serum samples obtained before, during,
and after the treatment period were measured by
use of an ELISA.
Results—Recombinant human interferon alfa-2a had
no antiviral activity against noncytopathic type 1
BVDV in persistently infected calves. All calves developed
microcytic anemia during the treatment period
that persisted for up to 13 weeks after cessation of
treatment. Anti-interferon antibodies were detected
during the treatment period and persisted for at least
2 weeks after cessation of treatment.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Because of
lack of in vivo antiviral activity against BVDV, recombinant
human interferon alfa-2a has little promise as a
therapeutic agent for the treatment of BVDV infection,
at least in persistently infected cattle. Furthermore,
treatment was associated with adverse immunologic
and hematologic effects. (Am J Vet Res
Objective—To determine incidence of animal bite injuries among humans in North Carolina by use of statewide emergency department visit data; to evaluate incidence rates on the basis of age, sex, urbanicity, biting species, and month for selected species; and to characterize bite-related emergency department visits.
Design—Retrospective cohort and cross-sectional study.
Sample—Records of 38,971 incident animal bite–related emergency department visits in North Carolina from 2008 to 2010.
Procedures—Emergency department visits were selected for inclusion by means of external-cause-of-injury codes assigned with an international coding system and keyword searches of chief complaint and triage notes. Rates were calculated with denominators obtained from census data. Cross-sectional analysis of incident emergency department visits was performed.
Results—By the age of 10, a child in North Carolina had a 1 in 50 risk of dog bite injury requiring an emergency department visit. Incidence rates for dog bites were highest for children ≤ 14 years of age, whereas the incidence rate for cat bites and scratches was highest among individuals > 79 years of age. Lifetime risk of cat bite or scratch injury requiring an emergency department visit was 1 in 60 for the population studied. Rabies postexposure prophylaxis was administered during 1,664 of 38,971 (4.3%) incident visits.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Emergency department visit surveillance data were used to monitor species-specific bite incidence statewide and in various subpopulations. Emergency department surveillance data may be particularly useful to public health veterinarians. Results may inform and renew interest in targeted animal bite prevention efforts.