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SUMMARY

A longitudinal survey of 820 cats in 73 households was conducted over a period of 6 years to establish the fate of pet cats that were seropositive after natural exposure to feline coronavirus (FCoV). In particular, their risk of developing feline infectious peritonitis (fip) was determined. The seropositive cats were assigned to 1 of 3 groups: cats from households in which fip had recently been diagnosed; cats from households in which fip had not been diagnosed, but from which kittens had been relocated and subsequently died of fip; and cats from households in which fip had not been diagnosed. Cats in the first group were not at greater risk of developing fip than were cats in the other 2 groups. Consequently, any household in which seropositive cats live must be considered a potential source of FCoV that can cause fip. There was no evidence that the enhanced disease, which has been described after experimentally induced infection of seropositive cats, exists in nature. Thus, analysis of the survival of the seropositive cats over periods of up to 36 months indicated that their risk of developing fip decreased with time, suggesting the development of immunity rather than increased susceptibility to disease. In addition, of 56 cats deemed to have been naturally reinfected because their anti- FCoV antibody titers decreased and subsequently increased, only 3 developed fip.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the effects of endotoxin administered IV on glucose and insulin dynamics in horses.

Animals—16 healthy adult mares.

Procedures—Each week of a 2-week randomized crossover study, each horse received an IV injection (duration, 30 minutes) of Escherichia coli O55:B5 lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in 60 mL of sterile saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (20 ng/kg) or sterile saline solution alone (control treatment). Frequently sampled IV glucose tolerance test procedures were performed at 24 hours before (baseline) and 24 and 48 hours after injection; glucose and insulin dynamics were assessed via minimal model analysis.

Results—13 of 16 horses had a clinical response to LPS, which was characterized by mild colic and leukopenia. Before treatment, mean ± SD insulin sensitivity was 2.9 ± 1.9 × 10−4 L·min−1·mU−1; this significantly decreased to 0.9 ± 0.9 × 10−4 L·min−1·mU−1 24 hours after treatment (69% reduction) and was 1.5 ± 0.9 × 10−4 L·min−1·mU−1 48 hours after treatment. At baseline, mean ± SD acute insulin response to glucose was 520 ± 196 mU·min·L−1; this significantly increased to 938 ± 620 mU·min·L−1 (80% increase) and 755 ± 400 mU·min·L−1 (45% increase) at 24 and 48 hours after LPS treatment, respectively.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Compared with baseline values, insulin sensitivity was decreased for 24 hours after IV injection of LPS, and affected horses had a compensatory pancreatic response. These disturbances in glucose and insulin dynamics may contribute to development of laminitis in horses.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the short- and long-term outcomes of dogs undergoing surgical ligation for a left-to-right shunting patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), identify risk factors for intraoperative hemorrhage and intra- and postoperative complications, and report overall mortality rates.

ANIMALS

417 client-owned dogs undergoing surgical ligation for a left-to-right shunting PDA between January 2010 and January 2020.

PROCEDURES

Data recorded included patient signalment, echocardiogram findings, intraoperative complications and mortality, postoperative complications, and short- and long-term outcomes.

RESULTS

There was no association between age and risk of intraoperative hemorrhage (P = .7), weight and intraoperative hemorrhage (P = .96), or increasing left atrium-to-aortic (LA:Ao) ratio and intraoperative hemorrhage (P = .08). Intraoperative hemorrhage occurred in 10.8% of patients. Intraoperative mortality was 2%. Ninety-five percent of dogs experiencing intraoperative hemorrhage survived to discharge. Survival to discharge was 97%. One- and 5-year survival rates were 96.4% and 87%, respectively.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Surgical ligation for a left-to-right shunting PDA is recommended due to the good long-term prognosis. Certain preoperative factors such as age, weight, and the presence and degree of mitral valve regurgitation had no detectable association with risks of intraoperative hemorrhage and, therefore, should not preclude surgical treatment for a left-to-right shunting PDA. Future studies are needed to further assess the association between increasing LA:Ao ratio and risk of intraoperative hemorrhage.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association