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  • Author or Editor: Sarah Nemanic x
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Abstract

Objective—To determine various measurements of medial retropharyngeal lymph nodes (MRPLNs) in healthy cats via ultrasonography and CT.

Animals—45 cats (age range, 2 to 8 years).

Procedures—Cats underwent CT of the head and ultrasonography of the cervical region. Various measurements of MRPLNs were obtained, and parenchymal heterogeneity, presence of a hilus, appearance of margins, and attenuation of MRPLNs were determined.

Results—Data for 7 cats were excluded because they did not meet inclusion criteria; data for 38 cats were evaluated. Measurements of left and right MRPLNs were not significantly different. Mean length × rostral height × rostral width dimensions of MRPLNs were 20.7 × 12.4 × 3.7 mm and 20.7 × 13.1 × 4.7 mm in ultrasonographic and CT images, respectively. Maximum MRPLN dimensions were approximately 32 × 20 × 7 mm. Mean attenuation of MRPLNs was 40.2 Hounsfield units. Parenchyma of MRPLNs was mildly (via CT) to moderately (via ultrasonography) heterogeneous. A hilus was identified in 95% (via ultrasonography) and 24% or 92% (via CT [depending on criteria used to define a hilus]) of MPRLNs. Lymph node margins were smooth in CT images and mildly irregular in ultrasonographic images. A negative linear correlation was detected between age of cat and MRPLN volume.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—MRPLNs in cats were easily imaged via ultrasonography and CT. Left and right MRPLNs were symmetric, and MRPLNs were larger in young adult cats versus old cats. Data were intended to serve as references for evaluation of MRPLNs in healthy cats.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To assess dimensions and attenuation of sternal lymph nodes (SLNs) observed by means of CT in healthy dogs.

ANIMALS 12 healthy adult research dogs.

PROCEDURES Precontrast and postcontrast enhanced CT of the thorax was performed on each dog. Objective and subjective contrast-enhanced CT measurements were obtained.

RESULTS By use of CT, 2 SLNs were identified in 10 of the 12 dogs and 1 SLN was identified in 2. Median SLN length, height, and width were 8.5 mm (range, 4 to 22 mm), 6.0 mm (range, 3 to 10 mm), and 5.0 mm (range, 3 to 10 mm), respectively. Median SLN length-to-T4 ratio, height-to-T4 ratio, and width-to-T4 ratio were 0.64 (range, 0.24 to 1.22), 0.37 (range, 0.25 to 0.53), and 0.29 (range, 0.19 to 0.67), respectively. Median SLN volume was 123 mm3 (range, 38 to 484 mm3). Median height-to-length ratio, width-to-length ratio, and height-to-width ratio were 0.57 (range, 0.27 to 1.75), 0.51 (range, 0.31 to 1.25), and 1.27 (range, 0.50 to 2.50), respectively. All SLNs had homogenous contrast enhancement with median precontrast and postcontrast attenuation values of 18.3 Hounsfield units (HU; range, 4.4 to 36.9 HU) and 41.3 HU (range, 24.0 to 77.4 HU), respectively. All SLNs had a visible hilus, which was fat attenuating in 8 dogs and hypoattenuating in 4 dogs.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE CT imaging characteristics described in this study may provide a reference for dimensions and appearance of SLNs of healthy dogs and serve as a basis for comparison with results for diseased dogs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To construct and optimize a fiducial marker suitable for both CT and MRI.

Sample—Fiducial markers containing serial dilutions of iopamidol mixed with water.

Procedures—IV tubing sets were infused with serial dilutions (0% to 100%; increments of 10%) of iopamidol. Tubing ends were sealed; additional seals were added to create an equilateral triangle. A reference point was created by placing a crimp in 1 side. Markers were fixed to a gelatin soft tissue–attenuating phantom and evaluated by use of CT and MRI. For CT, simple linear regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between the percentage of marker contrast medium and quantitative variables, including marker attenuation, attenuation changes in the phantom, and beam-hardening artifact length. A subjective grading scheme for artifact creation on CT images and marker visibility on MRI images was used. Measurements were obtained by investigators who were unaware of the contents of each marker.

Results—Percentage of contrast medium in each marker was strongly correlated with marker attenuation (r 2 = 0.96), artifact length (r 2 = 0.765), and mean attenuation changes within the phantom (r 2 = 0.826) for CT. Subjective CT scores indicated that concentrations of contrast medium > 50% resulted in excessive artifacts. Markers with concentrations of iopamidol > 50% had poor subjective MRI visibility scores. No artifacts were seen on MRI.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A marker containing a 10% solution of iodinated contrast medium mixed with water provided ideal contrast for both CT and MRI.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate changes in the dimension and volume of feline injection-site sarcomas (FISSs) before (in vivo) and after surgical excision and formalin fixation (ex vivo) as determined by measurements obtained from 2-D and 3-D CT images.

SAMPLE 10 excised FISSs.

PROCEDURES The maximum length, width, and depth of each FISS were measured on contrast-enhanced 2-D CT images of the tumor obtained in vivo and ex vivo. Those measurements were used to estimate tumor volume with the standard ellipsoid formula. Tumor volume was also calculated from 3-D CT images with software that used a volume-rendering algorithm. Student paired t tests were used for comparisons between the in vivo and ex vivo assessments.

RESULTS Small decreases were detected in maximum tumor length, width, and depth between the in vivo and ex vivo assessments; however, tumor length was the only dimension that decreased significantly between the 2 assessments. Median tumor volume decreased significantly between the in vivo and ex vivo assessments regardless of the method used to estimate it. Tumor volume estimated by the ellipsoid formula was significantly lower than that estimated by the 3-D CT software at both assessments.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that shrinkage of FISSs following excision and formalin fixation was small and may be less than that of grossly normal tissue. Tumor volume estimated by the ellipsoid formula was consistently less than that estimated by 3-D CT software and should not be used when accuracy of tumor volume is of particular concern and advanced CT imaging is available.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To characterize historical, clinicopathologic, ultrasonographic, microbiological, surgical, and histopathologic features of bacterial cholecystitis and bactibilia in dogs and evaluate response to treatment and outcomes in these patients.

Design—Retrospective case-control study.

Animals—40 client-owned dogs (10 with bacterial cholecystitis on histologic analysis or bactibilia on cytologic examination [case dogs] and 30 without bactibilia [controls]) evaluated at a veterinary teaching hospital between 2010 and 2014.

Procedures—Signalment, history, clinicopathologic findings, ultrasonographic features, microbiological results, surgical findings, histopathologic changes, treatments, and outcomes of case dogs were derived from medical records and summarized. Demographic and clinicopathologic data and ultrasonographic findings were compared between case and control dogs. Relationships among prior antimicrobial treatment, sediment formation in the gallbladder, presence of immobile biliary sludge, and presence of bactibilia or bacterial cholecystitis were assessed.

Results—No finding was pathognomonic for bactibilia or bacterial cholecystitis in dogs. Case dogs were significantly more likely to have immobile biliary sludge and had a greater degree of biliary sediment formation than did control dogs. All case dogs for which gallbladders were examined histologically (6/6) had bacterial cholecystitis. Five of 10 case dogs were Dachshunds. Medical or surgical treatment resulted in good outcomes.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Bactibilia and bacterial cholecystitis were important differential diagnoses in dogs with signs referable to biliary tract disease. Dachshunds were overrepresented, which may suggest a breed predisposition. Cytologic evaluation of bile should be considered in the routine assessment of dogs with hepatobiliary disease if immobile biliary sludge is present. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2015;246:982–989)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine whether cellophane banding secured with locking polymer clips on cadaveric splenic veins would cause less CT imaging artifact and achieve equivalent mechanical strength, compared with cellophane banding secured with metal vascular clips.

ANIMALS 10 canine cadavers.

PROCEDURES Clips of each material were applied to each cadaver in a crossover design study. Triple-layer cellophane bands secured with 4 medium-large or large polymer or metal clips were placed on cadaveric splenic veins and evaluated by use of CT. Beam-hardening artifact was assessed by artifact length, attenuation, and a subjective grading scale ranging from 1 to 3 for mild to severe imaging artifacts. Secured cellophane bands were mechanically tested to determine force-deformation curves and yield forces. Findings for clip methods were compared with a 1-way ANOVA with a Tukey post-test.

RESULTS For metal clips, beam-hardening artifact lengths and subjective artifact grades were significantly higher, whereas attenuation values were significantly lower, than findings for polymer clips. Polymer clips were significantly lower in strength than metal clips with mean ± SD yield loads of 1.9 ± 0.6 N (medium-large polymer clips), 2.8 ± 1.3 N (large polymer clips), 6.0 ± 1.9 N (medium-large metal clips), and 8.4 ± 2.7 N (large metal clips).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Use of locking polymer clips to secure cellophane banding resulted in less CT imaging artifact and mechanical strength, compared with use of metal vascular clips. Use of locking polymer clips may allow improved assessment of postoperative CT imaging in dogs with extrahepatic portosystemic shunts, which warrants in vivo clinical evaluation.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Case Description—A 16-week-old 1.5-kg (3.3-lb) sexually intact male Ragdoll kitten that had a 9-week history of marked modified transudate ascites was evaluated. A membranous obstruction of the caudal vena cava at the cranial aspect of the liver was identified via CT angiography.

Clinical Findings—Physical examination findings included a markedly distended abdomen and panting. Testing for circulating FIV antibody and FeLV antigen, a PCR assay for feline coronavirus performed on a sample of peritoneal fluid, and fecal flotation yielded negative results. A diagnosis of Budd-Chiari–like syndrome secondary to a membranous obstruction of the caudal vena cava was made.

Treatment and Outcome—The cat was anesthetized, and the subhepatic portion of the caudal vena cava was identified and accessed via median celiotomy and direct venipuncture. A 6F 8 × 24-mm balloon-expandable nitinol biliary stent was placed across the stenotic area under fluoroscopic guidance. The patient remained free of clinical signs at the last follow-up 13 months following the procedure.

Clinical Relevance—Budd-Chiari–like syndrome is a rare phenomenon in veterinary medicine, and congenital malformations should be considered in young feline patients with ascites. Computed tomography angiography proved to be a helpful adjunctive imaging technique to establish a diagnosis in this case. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report of successful treatment of a congenital caudal vena cava obstruction by means of stent placement in a juvenile cat.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association