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  • Author or Editor: Sarah M. Depenbrock x
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This article provides information to assist practitioners in the diagnosis, medical, and surgical management of obstructive urolithiasis in miniature pigs. The article focuses primarily on pigs managed as pets because production swine rarely undergo intensive treatment for urolithiasis. As much as possible, the information in this article is based on published literature, but given the limited number of publications addressing obstructive urolithiasis in pigs, some information is based on the authors’ clinical experience. Medical and surgical management of obstructive urolithiasis of pigs is often similar to management in ruminant and small animal species, but differences in swine anatomy, handling, and temperament create unique challenges. Pigs tend to be more difficult to restrain and examine than other livestock and often require heavy sedation or anesthesia to facilitate physical examination and basic diagnostic procedures. Because pigs are monogastrics, some oral treatments used in small animals may be used effectively in pigs. Clinicians should follow AMDUCA and consult the Food Animal Residue Avoidance Databank prior to extralabel drug use because pet pigs are still considered a major food-producing species in the United States.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


This article provides information to help US-based practitioners develop differential diagnoses for, and recognize foreign animal diseases associated with, dermatologic lesions in small ruminants. Sheep and goat pox are currently considered foreign animal diseases (in the United States) and may cause lesions similar to other endemic diseases of small ruminants including orf, ulcerative dermatosis, bluetongue, and dermatophilosis. Any cases involving unusual dermatologic lesions associated with high morbidity and/or mortality warrant reporting to governmental authorities including USDA APHIS or state regulatory veterinarians for herd or flock investigations. Vigilance on the part of livestock veterinarians and small ruminant producers is of paramount importance in preventing the entry and spread of economically devastating foreign animal diseases.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


OBJECTIVE To describe concentration-over-time data for ampicillin and sulbactam in the digital and systemic circulations and synovial fluid (SYN) of cattle following a single injection of ampicillin-sulbactam as a regional IV perfusion (RIVP).

ANIMALS 6 healthy adult nonlactating Jersey-crossbred cows.

PROCEDURES The right hind limb of each cow was aseptically prepared. A tourniquet was applied around the midmetatarsal region, and 1.0 g of ampicillin with 0.5 g of sulbactam in a combined formulation was administered as an RIVP into the dorsal common digital vein (DCDV). Blood samples from the DCDV and jugular vein and SYN samples from the metatarsophalangeal joint of the prepared limb were collected immediately before and at predetermined times for 24 hours after RIVP. One blood sample was obtained from the abaxial proper plantar vein of the lateral digit of the prepared limb 0.25 hours after RIVP. Serum and SYN ampicillin and sulbactam concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography.

RESULTS Mean ± SD maximum concentration of ampicillin in SYN and serum obtained from the abaxial proper plantar and jugular veins was 1,995 ± 1,011 μg/mL, 5,422 ± 1,953 μg/mL, and 2.5 ± 1.6 μg/mL, respectively. Corresponding serum and SYN concentrations of sulbactam were lower but followed the same pattern over time as those for ampicillin. Synovial fluid ampicillin concentration remained above 8 μg/mL for a mean time of 18.9 hours.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Potentially therapeutic concentrations of ampicillin were achieved in regional serum and SYN samples; SYN concentrations remained at potentially therapeutic values for > 12 hours following RIVP of 1.5 g of ampicillin-sulbactam in the hind limb of healthy cows.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research



To characterize injuries and describe medical management and clinical outcomes of goats, sheep, and pigs treated at a veterinary medical teaching hospital for burn injuries sustained during wildfires.


Goats (n = 9), sheep (12), and pigs (7) that sustained burn injuries from wildfires.


Medical records were searched to identify goats, sheep, and pigs that had burn injuries associated with California wildfires in 2006, 2015, and 2018. Data regarding signalment, physical examination findings, treatments, clinical outcomes, time to discharge from the hospital, and reasons for death or euthanasia were recorded.


The eyes, ears, nose, mouth, hooves, perineum, and ventral aspect of the abdomen were most commonly affected in both goats and sheep. In pigs, the ventral aspect of the abdomen, distal limb extremities, ears, and tail were most commonly affected. The median (range) time to discharge from the hospital for goats and pigs was 11 (3 to 90) and 85.5 (54 to 117) days, respectively. One of 9 goats, 12 of 12 sheep, and 5 of 7 pigs died or were euthanized. Laminitis and devitalization of distal limb extremities were common complications (13/28 animals) and a common reason for considering euthanasia in sheep and pigs.


Burn injuries in small ruminants and pigs required prolonged treatment in some cases. Results suggested prognosis for survival may be more guarded for sheep and pigs with burn injuries than for goats; however, further research is needed to confirm these findings.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association