To assess and compare the quality of smartphone ECG tracings to standard (base-apex) ECG tracings and assess agreement of ECG parameters between smartphone-based ECG and standard ECG.
The rams were consecutively examined with standard ECG and smartphone-based ECG (KardiaMobile; AliveCor Inc) after physical examination. ECGs were compared for quality score, heart rate, and ECG waves, complexes, and intervals. Quality scores were based on the presence or absence of baseline undulation and tremor artifacts using a 3-point scoring system (lowest possible = 0; highest possible = 3). A lower score was indicative of a better-quality ECG.
Smartphone-based ECGs were interpretable in 65% of cases, while 100% of standard ECGs were interpretable. Standard ECG quality was superior to smartphone-based ECG quality, with no agreement in the quality between devices (κ coefficient, –0.0062). There was good agreement for heart rate with mean difference 2.86 beats/min (CI, –3.44 to 9.16) between the standard and smartphone ECGs. Good agreement was observed for P wave amplitude with mean difference 0.02 mV (CI, –0.01 to 0.05), QRS duration with mean difference –10.5 ms (CI, –20.96 to –0.04), QT interval with mean difference –27.14 ms (CI, –59.36 to 5.08), T wave duration with mean difference –30.00 ms (CI, –66.727 to 6.727), and T wave amplitude with mean difference –0.07 mV (CI, –0.22 to 0.08) between the 2 devices.
Our findings indicate good agreement between standard and smartphone ECG for most parameters, although 35% of smartphone ECGs were uninterpretable.
To evaluate and report measurements of the radiographic cardiac silhouette of healthy juvenile and adult ospreys (Pandion haliaetus).
54 ospreys (22 adults, 19 juveniles, and 13 birds of undetermined age) without clinical signs of cardiac disease and with adequate ventrodorsal radiographic images for cardiac silhouette assessment.
Radiographs of ospreys were assessed to determine cardiac width at the widest point as well as sternal width and thoracic width at the same level. Two-way mixed-effects models were used to evaluate interrater reliability for mean rating. Multivariable linear regression analysis was used to create predictive models of cardiac width and to establish a theoretical reference range for healthy ospreys.
Cardiac width of healthy ospreys was approximately 90% to 92% of sternal width and 67% to 69% of thoracic width. Both sternal width and thoracic width were significant predictors of cardiac width in independent predictive models as well as in a combined model after controlling for age. Thirty-four of 41 (83%) measured cardiac widths were within the theoretical reference range.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Ospreys are sentinels used in monitoring environmental health. Environmental factors may have an impact on the cardiac health of ospreys, but reference values for healthy ospreys have not been established for use in assessing cardiomegaly in this species. The radiographic ratios and predictive model obtained in this study may be useful for objective evaluation of cardiomegaly in ospreys.