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  • Author or Editor: Sarah K. Abood x
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Abstract

Objective—To determine associations between serum concentrations of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and concentrations of adiponectin, leptin, and insulin in healthy cats.

Animals—56 healthy adult client-owned cats.

Procedures—Body condition score (BCS) was determined, and blood samples were collected after food was withheld for 12 hours. Serum was harvested for fatty acid analysis and measurement of serum concentrations of adiponectin, leptin, insulin, glucose, triglyceride, and cholesterol.

Results—1 cat was removed because of hyperglycemia. Significant interaction effects between BCS and serum concentrations of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) were detected for the analyses of associations between EPA and serum concentrations of adiponectin, insulin, and triglyceride. Cats were categorized into nonobese (BCS, 4 to 6 [n = 34 cats]) and obese (BCS, 7 to 8 [21]) groups; serum concentrations of EPA were directly associated with concentrations of adiponectin and inversely associated with concentrations of insulin and triglyceride in obese cats and were directly associated with concentrations of leptin and inversely associated with concentrations of adiponectin in nonobese cats. Additionally, serum concentrations of docosahexaenoic acid were directly associated with concentrations of adiponectin in obese cats. No significant associations between serum concentrations of docosahexaenoic acid or α-linolenic acid were detected in the analyses for all cats. Female cats had higher serum concentrations of adiponectin and lower concentrations of glucose than did male cats. Increased age was associated with a small increase in serum concentrations of leptin.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—EPA may ameliorate the decrease in adiponectin and the increase in insulin and triglyceride concentrations in obese cats.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine associations between serum concentrations of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids or body condition and serum concentrations of adiponectin, leptin, insulin, glucose, or triglyceride in healthy dogs.

Animals—62 healthy adult client-owned dogs.

Procedures—Body condition score and percentage of body fat were determined. Blood samples were collected after food was withheld for 12 hours. Serum was harvested for total lipid determination, fatty acid analysis, and measurement of serum concentrations of adiponectin, leptin, insulin, glucose, and triglyceride. Associations between the outcome variables (adiponectin, leptin, insulin, glucose, and triglyceride concentrations) and each of several variables (age, sex, percentage of body fat, and concentrations of total lipid, α-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid) were determined.

Results—Serum concentrations of docosapentaenoic acid were significantly positively associated with concentrations of adiponectin and leptin and negatively associated with concentrations of triglyceride. Serum concentrations of α-linolenic acid were significantly positively associated with concentrations of triglyceride. No significant associations were detected between serum concentrations of eicosapentaenoic acid or docosahexaenoic acid and any of the outcome variables. Percentage of body fat was significantly positively associated with concentrations of leptin, insulin, and triglyceride but was not significantly associated with adiponectin concentration. Age was positively associated with concentrations of leptin, insulin, and triglyceride and negatively associated with concentrations of adiponectin. Sex did not significantly affect serum concentrations for any of the outcome variables.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Docosapentaenoic acid may increase serum concentrations of adiponectin and leptin and decrease serum triglyceride concentration in healthy dogs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To assess the readability of pet obesity information, document the presence and absence of types of pet obesity information, and perform comparisons between dog and cat obesity information content on websites.

SAMPLE

68 websites containing pet obesity content.

PROCEDURES

Websites were systematically retrieved with a search engine and predefined search terms and phrases. For each website, pet obesity information was scored by use of 2 established readability tools: the simple measure of gobbledygook (SMOG) index and Flesch-Kincaid (FK) readability test. A directed content analysis was conducted with a codebook that assessed the presence or absence of 103 variables across 5 main topics related to pet obesity on each website.

RESULTS

The mean reading grade levels determined with the SMOG index and FK readability test were 16.61 and 9.07, respectively. Instructions for weight measurement and body condition scoring were found infrequently, as were nonmodifiable risk factors. There was a greater focus on addressing obesity through dietary changes than through increasing physical activity. Few websites recommended regular follow-up appointments with veterinarians. Weight management information and the emphasis on owners’ commitment to achieve their pet's weight loss targets differed among dog- and cat-focused websites.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results indicated that pet obesity information on the studied websites was largely inaccessible to pet owners owing to the associated high reading grade levels. Readers of that information would benefit from clarification of information gaps along with provision of guidance regarding navigating online information and counseling on the importance of nutritional and dietary reassessments for individual pets performed by veterinarians.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Pet owners necessarily play an active role in determining their pets' diet, and their nutritional choices are likely to be influenced by numerous factors, including their knowledge of the nutritional needs of their pets; their perceptions regarding the nutritional value, wholesomeness, and safety of feed ingredients; their thoughts about the pet food industry; and their sources of information regarding the dietary management of their pets. Communicating effectively with owners about nutrition and dietary management of companion animals can be difficult, particularly when the goal is to persuade a pet owner to alter feeding practices. Circumstances frequently arise in which a

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

More than 60% of households in the United States own at least 1 pet, which accounts for > 140 million cats and dogs. 1 Similarly, more than 60% of Australian households have at least 1 dog or cat. 2 Most pet dogs and cats in the United States, Australia, and other developed countries are fed commercial foods. 1,3–6 The widespread use of nutritionally complete and balanced commercial diets has been cited as a contributing factor for longer, healthier life spans in pets. 7 However, there appears to be increasing interest among veterinarians and pet owners regarding

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To estimate disease prevalence among dogs and cats in the United States and Australia and proportions of dogs and cats that receive therapeutic diets or dietary supplements.

Design—Telephone survey.

Sample Population—Dog and cat owners located in 5 geographic areas.

Procedures—A telephone survey was administered to dog and cat owners.

Results—Of 18,194 telephone calls that were made, 1,104 (6%) were to individuals who owned at least 1 dog or cat and agreed to participate. Information was collected for 635 dogs and 469 cats. Only 14 (1%) respondents indicated that their pet was unhealthy, but 176 (16%) indicated that their pets had 1 or more diseases. The most common diseases were musculo-skeletal, dental, and gastrointestinal tract or hepatic disease. Many owners (n = 356) reported their pets were overweight or obese, but only 3 reported obesity as a health problem in their pets. Owners of 28 (2.5%) animals reported that they were feeding a therapeutic diet, with the most common being diets for animals with renal disease (n = 5), reduced-calorie diets (5), and reduced-fat diets (4). Owners of 107 of 1,076 (9.9%) animals reported administering dietary supplements to their pets. Multivitamins (n = 53 animals), chondroprotective agents (22), and fatty acids (13) were the most common dietary supplements used.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that most dogs and cats reported by their owners to have a health problem were not being fed a therapeutic diet. In addition, the rate of dietary supplement use was lower than that reported for people.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association