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Abstract

Objective—To describe clinical, laboratory, and surgical findings in dogs with confirmed gallbladder rupture and in which serum total bilirubin concentration was within reference limits.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—5 dogs.

Procedures—Medical records were searched to identify dogs with gallbladder rupture that underwent treatment at the Kansas State University Veterinary Health Center from November 2007 through November 2013. Dogs were included if they had undergone abdominal ultrasonography, serum total bilirubin concentration was ≤ 0.4 mg/dL, and abdominal exploratory surgery confirmed the presence of gallbladder upture.

Results—An exploratory celotomy was performed in all dogs because of ultrasonographic findings of mild to marked abdominal effusion and either an unidentifiable gallbladder (n = 1 dog) or a distended gallbladder with a suspected gallbladder mucocele (4 dogs). Serum total bilirubin concentration was within reference limits (median, 0.2 mg/dL; range, 0.1 to 0.4 mg/dL; reference range, 0.1 to 0.4 mg/dL) in all dogs before surgery. In 1 dog, bile acids concentrations in serum and in peritoneal fluid were compared and the results (48 μmol/L and 1,070 μmol/L, respectively) were supportive of the diagnosis of gallbladder rupture.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that even when serum total bilirubin concentration is within reference limits, gallbladder rupture should be considered in dogs with acute signs of abdominal pain when a mucocele is suspected on abdominal imaging and free abdominal fluid is present. Results suggested that a comparison of serum to peritoneal fluid bile acids concentrations may provide additional support for a diagnosis of gallbladder rupture.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate dogs with total hypercalcemia, azotemia, and normal serum phosphorus concentrations to determine whether a calcium-to-phosphorus ratio (Ca:P) or ionized Ca:P (iCa:P) could be utilized to predict underlying neoplasia.

ANIMALS

105 dogs were included in the study. Thirty-seven percent (n = 39) had known neoplasia, and 63% (66) had no evidence of neoplasia.

PROCEDURES

A retrospective medical records search was performed. An observational cutoff of 2.5 for Ca:P and 0.33 for iCa:P was used for determining sensitivity and specificity between the neoplasia and nonneoplasia groups.

RESULTS

Total hypercalcemia was higher in dogs with neoplasia compared to nonneoplastic cases of hypercalcemia. Ca:P of 2.5 had an 80% sensitivity and 46% specificity for predicting neoplasia. iCa:P of 0.33 had a 92% sensitivity and 77% specificity for predicting neoplasia in azotemic dogs.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The sensitivity and specificity of Ca:P was low, making it an unreliable tool to predict neoplasia in this specific study population. However, iCa:P may have some usefulness in determining presence of neoplasia in patients with high calcium, azotemia, and normal phosphorus.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine whether delivery of compounded liquid sildenafil directly to the stomach of dogs with megaesophagus (ME) would affect esophageal clearance, regurgitation frequency, body weight, or quality of life.

ANIMALS

10 client-owned otherwise healthy dogs with stable ME.

PROCEDURES

A randomized crossover study was performed. Dogs received either sildenafil (1 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h) or a placebo for 14 days, followed by a 7-day washout period, then the opposite treatment for 14 days. Esophageal clearance time was assessed by means of videofluoroscopy prior to treatment and on day 1 of each treatment period. Owners maintained logs of regurgitation episodes and quality of life.

RESULTS

Compounded liquid sildenafil moved into the stomach during 21 of 30 (70%) videofluoroscopy sessions. Sildenafil resulted in a significant reduction in the number of regurgitation episodes (median, 3.5 episodes/wk; range, 0 to 14.5 episodes/wk), compared with baseline (median, 6.5 episodes/wk; range, 1.5 to 19.5 episodes/wk) and the placebo (median, 4 episodes/wk; range, 0 to 28 episodes/wk), and a significant increase in body weight (median, 22.05 kg; range, 6 to 26.3 kg), compared with baseline (median, 21.55 kg; range, 5.1 to 26.2 kg) and the placebo (median, 22.9 kg; range, 5.8 to 25.9 kg). There were no differences in esophageal clearance times or quality-of life-scores between sildenafil and placebo.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Although significant differences with placebo administration were identified, clinically relevant improvements were not seen with the use of compounded liquid sildenafil in dogs with ME.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Case Description—5 cats from the same household were examined because of a sudden onset of tremors, obtundation, blindness, and dilated pupils. Approximately 12 hours prior to evaluation, the owner had attempted to treat the cats for suspected ear mite (Otodectes cynotis) infestation by aural administration of a dose of an ivermectin paste intended for oral administration to horses (approx 22 mg/cat; half of the dose was administered into each ear canal).

Clinical Findings—None of the cats had a menace response; all cats had dilated pupils and decreased pupillary light reflexes. Findings of fundic examination were unremarkable. Electroretinography was performed for 4 cats, and b-wave responses were identified as diminished. Toxicological assay results for serum samples from 2 cats confirmed the presence of ivermectin (450 and 610 μg/L).

Treatment and Outcome—All 5 cats made a complete recovery. Neurologic abnormalities resolved, electroretinographic responses improved, and vision was restored with no residual pathological changes detected during fundic examination.

Clinical Relevance—To the authors’ knowledge, the information reported here provided the first description of ophthalmic and electroretinographic findings in cats with ivermectin toxicosis resulting from transdermal administration. Clinical signs, including blindness, resolved with time, without additional medical intervention.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the radiographic thickness of the dorsal hoof wall in normal draft horse feet.

ANIMALS

33 adult draft horses with no history of laminitis, no clinically obvious lameness, and visibly unremarkable front feet were included.

METHODS

This was a prospective, descriptive study of clinically normal draft horses’ front feet. Lateromedial radiographs were acquired of the front feet. A ratio of the dorsal hoof wall thickness to the length of the distal phalanx (DHWP3 ratio) was calculated.

RESULTS

The dorsal hoof wall thickness to length of the distal phalanx was calculated as 0.33 ± 0.03 (range of 0.28 to 0.39) in this population of draft horses.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

With very few exceptions, the heterogeneous population of draft horses evaluated in this study had a DHWP3 ratio greater than previously published values in lighter breeds (< 0.30).

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association