Objectives—To determine incidence and identify predisposing
factors for sterile hemorrhagic cystitis (SHC) in
dogs with lymphoma that were treated with cyclophosphamide
and to evaluate whether furosemide administered
IV concurrently with cyclophosphamide decreased
the incidence of SHC.
Animals—216 dogs with lymphoma.
Procedure—Medical records of dogs with lymphoma
that received cyclophosphamide chemotherapy in
accordance with 1 of 2 protocols, with or without concurrent
IV administration of furosemide, were examined.
Data for the 2 groups were analyzed to determine
the incidence and predisposing factors (age, breed, sex,
weight, previous or preexisting disease, previous or preexisting
urinary tract infection, neutropenia, azotemia,
dose, and number of cyclophosphamide treatments) for
Results—Cyclophosphamide-associated SHC developed
in 12 of 133 (9%) dogs that had not received concurrent
administration of furosemide and cyclophosphamide
treatments; of the 83 dogs that had received
furosemide, only 1 (1.2%) developed SHC. Dogs receiving
cyclophosphamide and furosemide concurrently
were significantly less likely to develop SHC than dogs
that did not receive furosemide. Dogs with previous or
preexisting immune-mediated disease were significantly
more likely to develop cyclophosphamide-associated
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Analysis of
results suggested an association between IV administration
of furosemide concurrently with cyclophosphamide
and decreased incidence of cyclophosphamide-
associated SHC. Incidence of cyclophosphamide-
associated SHC was similar in treated dogs
that did not receive concurrent furosemide to that
observed for other studies in which cyclophosphamide
was administered orally. Cyclophosphamide-associated
SHC appeared to develop early during the course of
chemotherapy when furosemide was not administered
concurrently with cyclophosphamide. (J Am Vet Med
Objective—To describe clinical outcome of dogs with mast cell tumors (MCTs) arising from the oral mucosa, oral mucocutaneous junction, or perioral region of the muzzle and evaluate the potential role of the chemokine receptor type 7 (CCR7) in the biological behavior of these tumors.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—44 dogs with MCTs of the oral mucosa (n = 14), oral mucocutaneous junction (19), or perioral region of the muzzle (11).
Procedures—Medical records were reviewed for information on signalment, regional metastasis, treatments, cause of death, and survival time. Twenty of the 44 cases had stored histologic samples available for immunohistochemical staining for CCR7
Results—For all dogs, median survival time was 52 months. Twenty-six (59%) dogs had regional lymph node metastasis on admission. Median survival time for dogs with lymph node metastasis was 14 months, whereas median survival time was not reached for dogs without lymph node metastasis. Intensity of staining for CCR7 was not significantly associated with the presence of regional lymph node metastasis or survival time.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that in dogs with MCTs arising from the oral mucosa, oral mucocutaneous junction, or perioral region of the muzzle, the presence of regional lymph node metastasis at the time of diagnosis was a negative prognostic factor. However, prolonged survival times could be achieved with treatment. In addition, CCR7 expression in the primary tumor was not significantly associated with the presence of regional lymph node metastasis or survival time.
Objective—To determine whether argyrophilic nucleolar organizing regions (AgNORs), Ki-67, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) scores were associated with histologic grade and survival in dogs with soft tissue sarcomas (STSs).
Animals—60 dogs with STSs.
Procedure—Medical records were examined and histologic specimens were reviewed. Tissue specimens obtained from archival materials were used to prepare sections for histologic staining for AgNOR and immunohistochemical staining for Ki-67 and PCNA labeling. Follow-up monitoring was obtained by reevaluation or telephone conversations with referring veterinarians or owners.
Results—27 (45%) STSs were grade 1, 23 (38%) were grade 2, and 10 (17%) were grade 3. The mean and median AgNOR, Ki-67, and PCNA scores were determined, and significant positive associations among AgNOR and Ki-67 scores with histologic grade and mitotic score were detected. Fifty-four dogs had adequate follow-up examinations and were included in survival analysis and evaluation of prognostic factors. Overall median survival time was > 1,306 days. Twelve of 54 (22%) dogs died of tumor-related causes. Metastatic disease developed in 8 of 54 (15%) dogs. Results of univariate analysis indicated that increased mitotic score, increased AgNOR score, increased Ki-67 score, incomplete surgical margins, noncurative intent surgery, Ki-67 score greater than the median Ki-67 score, and AgNOR score greater than the median AgNOR score were prognostic factors for decreased survival time. Results of multivariate analysis indicated that increased AgNOR score was the only prognostic factor for decreased survival time.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that AgNORs and possibly Ki-67 should be routinely evaluated with histologic grading for STSs in dogs.