To evaluate home-prepared maintenance diet (HPMD) recipes for cats and compare the nutritional profiles with National Research Council (NRC) recommended allowances (RAs) for essential nutrients for adult cats.
114 recipes (obtained from books and online sources) for HPMDs for cats.
Computer software was used to determine nutrient concentrations of HPMD recipes for comparison with NRC RAs for essential nutrients for adult cats. Effects of recipe authorship (veterinarian vs nonveterinarian) and supplementation on the number of nutrient concentrations below RAs were evaluated.
Of the 114 HPMD recipes, 113 contained vague instructions regarding preparation, and 46 did not provide feeding directions. Only 94 recipes provided adequately detailed information for computerized nutritional analysis, although most (93/94) still required assumptions regarding ingredients, preparation, or supplementation. Nonveterinarian-authored recipes and recipes without supplement-type products had more nutrient concentrations below NRC RAs, but no recipe met all RAs. With assumptions, 5 veterinarian-authored recipes met NRC RAs for all assessed nutrients except choline; however, taurine adequacy in 2 of those recipes could not be confirmed. Crude protein concentration was below the RA in 6 of 94 (6.4%) recipes. Nutrients most frequently below RAs included choline, iron, thiamine, zinc, manganese, vitamin E, and copper (in 89.7%, 76.6%, 62.8%, 61.7%, 57.4%, 57.4%, and 45.7% of recipes, respectively).
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Problems with nutritional adequacy were identified in all evaluated HPMD recipes. Appropriate formulation of HPMDs requires specialized knowledge of nutrition and use of computer software to avoid potentially harmful nutrient deficiencies.
To identify the degree of left arytenoid cartilage (LAC) abduction that allows laryngeal airflow similar to that in galloping horses, assess 2-D and 3-D biomechanical effects of prosthetic laryngoplasty on LAC movement and airflow, and determine the influence of suture position through the muscular process of the arytenoid cartilage (MPA) on these variables.
7 equine cadaver larynges.
With the right arytenoid cartilage maximally abducted and inspiratory airflow simulated by vacuum, laryngeal airflow and translaryngeal pressure and impedance were measured at 12 incremental LAC abduction forces (0% to 100% [maximum abduction]) applied through laryngoplasty sutures passed caudocranially or mediolaterally through the left MPA. Cross-sectional area of the rima glottis and left-to-right angle quotient were determined from photographs at each abduction force; CT images were obtained at alternate forces. Arytenoid and cricoid cartilage markers allowed calculation of LAC roll, pitch, and yaw through use of Euler angles on 3-D reconstructed CT images.
Translaryngeal pressure and impedance decreased, and airflow increased rapidly at low abduction forces, then slowed until a plateau was reached at approximately 50% of maximum abduction force. The greatest LAC motion was rocking (pitch). Suture position through the left MPA did not significantly affect airflow data. Approximately 50% of maximum abduction force, corresponding to a left arytenoid angle of approximately 30° and left-to-right angle quotient of 0.79 to 0.84, allowed airflow of approximately 61 ± 6.5 L/s.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Ex vivo modeling results suggested little benefit to LAC abduction forces > 50%, which allowed airflow similar to that reported elsewhere for galloping horses.