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Objective—To determine the effects of 2 anti-inflammatory drugs in lactating Holstein cows with endotoxin- induced mastitis.

Animals—30 multiparous Holstein cows that had been lactating for 30 to 60 days.

Procedure—Bacterial culture of milk samples and physical examinations established that study cows were in good health and free of mastitis. Mastitis was induced in 1 front mammary gland by intramammary administration of purified bacterial endotoxin. Cows were allocated into 1 of 3 treatment groups: untreated endotoxic mastitis (n = 9), endotoxic mastitis plus flunixin meglumine (9), and endotoxic mastitis plus isoflupredone acetate (10). Heart rate, rectal temperature, mammary surface area, and rumen motility were recorded hourly for 14 hours following endotoxin administration. Flunixin meglumine or isoflupredone acetate was administered after mammary swelling and rectal temperature ≥ 40°C had developed. Milk production was evaluated from 5 days before to 10 days after induction of mastitis.

Results—Neither drug ameliorated loss of milk production or swelling of the affected mammary gland. Both drugs reduced mean heart rate during the 14 hours following endotoxin administration, compared with untreated control cows. Cows treated with flunixin meglumine had increased rumen motility and decreased rectal temperature during the same period, compared with all other cows.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Neither drug enhanced recovery of milk production following endotoxin- induced mastitis. Flunixin meglumine decreased rectal temperature, whereas isoflupredone did not; however, it has not been established that reduction of fever is beneficial to cows with naturally occurring mastitis. ( Am J Vet Res 2004;65:64–68)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To determine the effect of IV administration of a bolus of 50% dextrose solution on electrolyte and energy balance and effect of blood collection site on serum electrolyte values in postparturient dairy cows.

Animals—24 clinically normal multiparous cows.

Procedures—A bolus of 50% dextrose solution (0.5 L [n = 8 cows]), 50% dextrose solution (1.0 L [8]), or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (1.0 L, control treatment [8]) was administered via jugular venipuncture 5 to 10 days after parturition. Pretreatment and posttreatment blood samples were analyzed for concentrations of calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, glucose, insulin, β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA), and nonesterified fatty acids. Coccygeal vessel and jugular vein blood samples were obtained prior to treatment, and electrolyte concentrations were compared.

Results—Treatment with 50% dextrose decreased phosphorus concentration in serum, compared with the control treatment. Suppression of BHBA and nonesterified fatty acid concentrations following dextrose treatment lasted for < 12 hours; mean BHBA concentrations in all groups were increased 24 hours after treatment. Mean serum phosphorus concentration in coccygeal vessel blood samples was 0.67 mg/dL greater than the concentration in jugular vein blood samples.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Postpartum cows treated with dextrose solution may be at risk for hypophosphatemia, and 1 treatment with 0.5 or 1 L of 50% dextrose solution is unlikely to prevent or resolve acetonemia (ketosis). The risk of hypophosphatemia may be underestimated when coccygeal vessel blood samples are used for diagnosis. (Am J Vet Res 2010;71:1074–1080)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To measure epithelial cell percentages and somatic cell counts (SCCs) in milk and determine whether isoflupredone acetate reduces mammary gland epithelial cell sloughing in cows with acute endotoxin-induced mastitis.

Animals—13 lactating Holstein cows.

Procedures—Determination of SCC and flow cytometric analysis of cytokeratin-positive (epithelial) cells in milk were performed before and 12 hours after induction of mastitis via intramammary administration of bacterial endotoxin in 8 cows and at the same time points in 5 cows without mastitis. Endotoxin-treated cows received isoflupredone acetate (20 mg) or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (n = 4/group) IV after signs of mastitis developed.

Results—At the 12-hour time point, mean ± SD percentage of epithelial cells in milk increased from 2.74 ± 1.93% to 42.11 ± 36.21% and decreased from 5.73 ± 4.52% to 5.31 ± 1.93% in milk from cows with and without mastitis, respectively. Median (range) SCC in milk increased from 195,000 cells/mL (17,000 to 442,000 cells/mL) to 5,437,500 cells/mL (69,000 to 11,036,000 cells/mL) and from 19,000 cells/mL (9,000 to 125,000 cells/mL) to 51,000 cells/mL (10,000 to 835,000 cells/mL) in cows with and without mastitis, respectively. Changes in these variables were significantly greater in mastitis-affected cows. Administration of isoflupredone acetate did not affect epithelial cell percentage or SCC in milk.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—During the early phase of endotoxin-induced mastitis in dairy cows, large numbers of epithelial cells were sloughed into the milk. Epithelial cell damage likely precedes an influx of immune cells into affected mammary glands and may contribute to breakdown of the blood-milk barrier.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To determine current attitudes and practices related to pain and analgesia in cattle among US veterinarians in bovine practice and to identify factors associated with these attitudes and practices.

Design—Web-based survey.

Sample—3,019 US members of the American Association of Bovine Practitioners (AABP) with e-mail addresses.

Procedures—Veterinarians were invited via e-mail to participate in a Web-based survey. Respondents replied to questions related to pain and analgesia and supplied personal, professional, and demographic information. Descriptive statistical analysis was performed, and associations among various factors were examined.

Results—666 surveys (25.5% response rate) were analyzed. Among common procedures and medical conditions of cattle listed on the survey, castration of dairy calves < 6 months old was subjectively estimated as causing the least pain; abdominal surgery, toxic mastitis, and dehorning of calves > 6 months old were assessed as causing the greatest pain. Respondents reported not providing analgesic drugs to approximately 70% of calves castrated at < 6 months of age. The most commonly administered analgesics were NSAIDs, local anesthetics, and α2-adrenergic receptor agonists. Significant associations were detected among respondent characteristics and pain ratings, percentages of cattle treated, and opinions regarding analgesia.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results provide information on current attitudes and practices related to pain and analgesia in cattle among US veterinarians in bovine practice and can be considered in the development of policies and protocols for pain management in cattle. These data can be compared with those of future studies to examine changes over time.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


OBJECTIVE To compare antibody responses of horses naturally infected with West Nile virus (WNV) and those vaccinated against WNV, to identify whether vaccination interferes with the ability to diagnose WNV infection, and to determine the duration of antibody responses after vaccination.

SAMPLE Sera from horses naturally infected with WNV (n = 10) and adult WNV-naïve horses before and after vaccination with a live canarypox virus–vectored vaccine (7) or a killed virus vaccine (8).

PROCEDURES An established WNV IgM capture ELISA was used to measure IgM responses. Newly developed capture ELISAs were used to measure responses of 8 other WNV-specific immunoglobulin isotypes. A serum neutralization assay was used to determine anti-WNV antibody titers.

RESULTS WNV-specific IgM responses were typically detected in the sera of WNV-infected horses but not in sera of horses vaccinated against WNV. Natural infection with and vaccination against WNV induced an immunoglobulin response that was primarily composed of IgG1. West Nile virus–specific IgG1 was detected in the sera of most horses 14 days after vaccination. Serum anti-WNV IgG1 and neutralizing antibody responses induced by the killed-virus vaccines were higher and lasted longer than did those induced by the live canarypox virus–vectored vaccine.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE On the basis of these findings, we recommend that horses be vaccinated against WNV annually near the beginning of mosquito season, that both IgM and IgG1 responses against WNV be measured to distinguish between natural infection and vaccination, and that a WNV IgG1 ELISA be used to monitor anti-WNV antibodies titers in vaccinated horses.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research



To evaluate hearing loss in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels (CKCS), breed-specific brainstem auditory-evoked response (BAER) testing parameters are needed to help assess the Chiari-like malformation (CM) grade. The purpose of this study was to establish breed-specific BAER data and to determine if BAER indexes differed based on the CM grade. We hypothesized that there would be latency differences based on the CM grade.


20 CKCS without apparent hearing abnormalities as assessed by the owners.


Under general anesthesia, CKCS underwent a CT scan (to assess the middle ear), BAER testing, and MRI (to assess the grade of CM).


No CKCS had CM0. Nine (45%) CKCS had CM1; 11 (55%) had CM2. All had at least 1 morphologic abnormality in waveforms. Absolute and interpeak latencies were reported for all CKCS and compared between CM grades. The median threshold for CKCS with CM1 was 39 and for CM2 was 46. Absolute latencies for CKCS with CM2 were consistently longer than those for CKCS with CM1 with the exception of waves II and V at 33 dB. Significant differences were found for wave V at 102 dB ( P = .04) and wave II at 74 dB (P = .008). Interpeak latency comparisons were inconsistent between CM1 and CM2.


Breed-specific BAER data for CKCS with CM1 and CM2 were established. The results suggest that CM impacts BAER latency results, but the influence of the malformation is not always statistically significant or predictable.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research