Objective—To measure pharmacokinetics of levetiracetam (LEV) after single-dose oral administration in healthy dogs and determine whether pharmacokinetics changed after repeated oral dosing.
Animals—6 healthy adult dogs.
Procedures—Pharmacokinetics were calculated following administration of a single dose (mean, 21.7 mg/kg, PO; day 1) and after administration of the last dose following administration for 6 days (20.8 to 22.7 mg/kg, PO, q 8 h; days 2 to 7). Plasma LEV concentrations were determined by use of high-pressure liquid chromatography. Pharmacokinetic data were analyzed by use of a 1-compartment model with first-order absorption.
Results—Peak concentration occurred 0.6 hours after administration of the first dose, with an absorption half-life of 0.06 hours. Minimal accumulation occurred over the 7 days, with only a slight increase in total area under the concentration-versus-time curve from 268.52 ± 56.33 h·μg/mL (mean ± SD) to 289.31 ± 51.68 h·μg/mL after 7 days. Terminal half-life was 2.87 ± 0.21 hours after the first dose and 3.59 ± 0.82 hours after the last dose on day 7. Trough plasma concentrations were variable, depending on the time of day they were measured (morning trough concentration, 18.42 ± 5.16 μg/mL; midday trough concentration, 12.57 ± 4.34 μg/mL), suggesting a diurnal variation in drug excretion.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that the pharmacokinetics of LEV did not change appreciably after administration of multiple doses over 7 days. Administration of LEV at a dosage of 20 mg/kg, PO, every 8 hours to healthy dogs yielded plasma drug concentrations consistently within the therapeutic range established for LEV in humans.
A 3-year-old 5-kg sexually intact female silvery langur housed in a single-species group at a zoological institution was presented because of acute trauma to the left forelimb.
Radiography of the left forelimb revealed a type II Monteggia fracture (proximal ulnar fracture with cranial displacement and caudal luxation of the radial head). During surgery, disruption of the annular ligament and rupture of the lateral collateral ligament were noted.
TREATMENT AND OUTCOME
The langur underwent open reduction and internal fixation of the ulnar fracture and placement of a radioulnar positional screw, a prosthetic lateral collateral ligament, and a temporary hinged type 1A external skeletal fixator. The langur was returned to group housing, underwent behavioral training, and was periodically anesthetized for physical therapy sessions to improve range of motion of the left elbow joint. The external skeletal fixator was removed 4 weeks after surgery, and the radioulnar positional screw was removed 6 weeks after surgery. Three months after surgery, the range of motion of the langur’s left elbow joint was considered normal, and the animal returned to normal activity.
For the captive silvery langur of the present report, surgical stabilization and postoperative management of a type II Monteggia fracture of the left forelimb were successful with recovery of elbow joint function. These techniques may be applied to other captive nonhuman primates, including those that brachiate or are members of social species that must be housed with conspecifics in the postoperative period to maintain group dynamics.
Objective—To determine the pharmacokinetics of
ceftazidime following subcutaneous administration
and continuous IV infusion to healthy dogs and to
determine the minimum inhibitory concentration
(MIC) of ceftazidime for clinical isolates of
Animals—10 healthy adult dogs.
Procedure—MIC of ceftazidime for 101 clinical isolates
of P aeruginosa was determined in vitro. Serum
concentrations of ceftazidime were determined following
subcutaneous administration of ceftazidime
(30 mg/kg of body weight) to 5 dogs and continuous
IV infusion of ceftazidime (loading dose, 4.4 mg/kg;
infusion rate, 4.1 mg/kg/h) for 36 hours to 5 dogs.
Results—The MIC of ceftazidime for P aeruginosa
was ≤ 8 µg/ml; all isolates were considered susceptible.
Following SC administration of ceftazidime, mean
β disappearance half-life was 0.8 hours, and mean
serum ceftazidime concentration exceeded the MIC
for P aeruginosa for only 4.3 hours. Two dogs had gastrointestinal
tract effects. Mean serum ceftazidime
concentration exceeded 16 µg/ml during continuous
IV infusion. None of the dogs developed adverse
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Administration
of ceftazidime subcutaneously (30 mg/kg, q 4
h) or as a constant IV infusion (loading dose, 4.4
mg/kg; rate, 4.1 mg/kg/h) would maintain serum ceftazidime
concentrations above the MIC determined
for 101 clinical isolates of P aeruginosa. Use of these
dosages may be appropriate for treatment of dogs
with infections caused by P aeruginosa. (Am J Vet Res
Objective—To determine whether dogs with head trauma have a greater incidence of seizures than the general canine patient population.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—259 client-owned dogs.
Procedures—Medical records of dogs evaluated for head trauma at The Ohio State University Veterinary Medical Center from 1999 to 2009 were reviewed. Data were collected regarding the cause of the head trauma, physical examination and neurologic examination findings, comorbidities, and the development of seizures during hospitalization. A telephone survey was conducted to question owners regarding the development of seizures after discharge. Relationships between the nature of the head trauma and the development of seizures were then examined.
Results—3.5% of dogs with head trauma developed in-hospital seizures, and 6.8% of dogs with head trauma for which follow-up information was available developed seizures after hospital discharge, compared with an epilepsy rate of 1.4% in our hospital. Dogs that developed in-hospital seizures were significantly more likely to have been hit by a car or experienced acceleration-deceleration injury. Additionally, 10% of dogs with traumatic brain injury had in-hospital seizures. No visit or patient characteristics were significantly associated with the development of out-of-hospital seizures.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Dogs with head trauma may develop seizures at a greater rate than dogs in the general canine patient population. Particularly in the immediate to early posttraumatic period, clinicians should remain vigilant for the development of posttraumatic seizures and treat patients accordingly.
To evaluate hearing loss in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels (CKCS), breed-specific brainstem auditory-evoked response (BAER) testing parameters are needed to help assess the Chiari-like malformation (CM) grade. The purpose of this study was to establish breed-specific BAER data and to determine if BAER indexes differed based on the CM grade. We hypothesized that there would be latency differences based on the CM grade.
20 CKCS without apparent hearing abnormalities as assessed by the owners.
Under general anesthesia, CKCS underwent a CT scan (to assess the middle ear), BAER testing, and MRI (to assess the grade of CM).
No CKCS had CM0. Nine (45%) CKCS had CM1; 11 (55%) had CM2. All had at least 1 morphologic abnormality in waveforms. Absolute and interpeak latencies were reported for all CKCS and compared between CM grades. The median threshold for CKCS with CM1 was 39 and for CM2 was 46. Absolute latencies for CKCS with CM2 were consistently longer than those for CKCS with CM1 with the exception of waves II and V at 33 dB. Significant differences were found for wave V at 102 dB ( P = .04) and wave II at 74 dB (P = .008). Interpeak latency comparisons were inconsistent between CM1 and CM2.
Breed-specific BAER data for CKCS with CM1 and CM2 were established. The results suggest that CM impacts BAER latency results, but the influence of the malformation is not always statistically significant or predictable.
To characterize clinical and epidemiologic features of SARS-CoV-2 in companion animals detected through both passive and active surveillance in the US.
204 companion animals (109 cats, 95 dogs) across 33 states with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections between March 2020 and December 2021.
Public health officials, animal health officials, and academic researchers investigating zoonotic SARS-CoV-2 transmission events reported clinical, laboratory, and epidemiologic information through a standardized One Health surveillance process developed by the CDC and partners.
Among dogs and cats identified through passive surveillance, 94% (n = 87) had reported exposure to a person with COVID-19 before infection. Clinical signs of illness were present in 74% of pets identified through passive surveillance and 27% of pets identified through active surveillance. Duration of illness in pets averaged 15 days in cats and 12 days in dogs. The average time between human and pet onset of illness was 10 days. Viral nucleic acid was first detected at 3 days after exposure in both cats and dogs. Antibodies were detected starting 5 days after exposure, and titers were highest at 9 days in cats and 14 days in dogs.
Results of the present study supported that cats and dogs primarily become infected with SARS-CoV-2 following exposure to a person with COVID-19, most often their owners. Case investigation and surveillance that include both people and animals are necessary to understand transmission dynamics and viral evolution of zoonotic diseases like SARS-CoV-2.