Objective—To measure epithelial cell percentages and somatic cell counts (SCCs) in milk and determine whether isoflupredone acetate reduces mammary gland epithelial cell sloughing in cows with acute endotoxin-induced mastitis.
Animals—13 lactating Holstein cows.
Procedures—Determination of SCC and flow cytometric analysis of cytokeratin-positive (epithelial) cells in milk were performed before and 12 hours after induction of mastitis via intramammary administration of bacterial endotoxin in 8 cows and at the same time points in 5 cows without mastitis. Endotoxin-treated cows received isoflupredone acetate (20 mg) or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (n = 4/group) IV after signs of mastitis developed.
Results—At the 12-hour time point, mean ± SD percentage of epithelial cells in milk increased from 2.74 ± 1.93% to 42.11 ± 36.21% and decreased from 5.73 ± 4.52% to 5.31 ± 1.93% in milk from cows with and without mastitis, respectively. Median (range) SCC in milk increased from 195,000 cells/mL (17,000 to 442,000 cells/mL) to 5,437,500 cells/mL (69,000 to 11,036,000 cells/mL) and from 19,000 cells/mL (9,000 to 125,000 cells/mL) to 51,000 cells/mL (10,000 to 835,000 cells/mL) in cows with and without mastitis, respectively. Changes in these variables were significantly greater in mastitis-affected cows. Administration of isoflupredone acetate did not affect epithelial cell percentage or SCC in milk.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—During the early phase of endotoxin-induced mastitis in dairy cows, large numbers of epithelial cells were sloughed into the milk. Epithelial cell damage likely precedes an influx of immune cells into affected mammary glands and may contribute to breakdown of the blood-milk barrier.
To describe the radiographic appearance of benign bone infarcts and bone infarcts associated with neoplasia in dogs and determine the utility of radiography in differentiating benign and malignancy-associated bone infarcts.
49 dogs with benign (n = 33) or malignancy-associated (16) infarcts involving the appendicular skeleton.
A retrospective cohort study was performed by searching a referral osteopathology database for cases involving dogs with a histologic diagnosis of bone infarction. Case radiographs were anonymized and reviewed by 2 board-certified veterinary radiologists blinded to the histologic classification. Radiographic features commonly used to differentiate aggressive from nonaggressive osseous lesions were recorded, and reviewers classified each case as likely benign infarct, likely malignancy-associated infarct, or undistinguishable.
Only 16 (48%) of the benign infarcts and 6 (38%) of the malignancy-associated infarcts were correctly classified by both reviewers. Medullary lysis pattern and periosteal proliferation pattern were significantly associated with histologic classification. Although all 16 (100%) malignancy-associated lesions had aggressive medullary lysis, 23 of the 33 (70%) benign lesions also did. Eight of the 16 (50%) malignancy-associated infarcts had aggressive periosteal proliferation, compared with 7 of the 33 (21%) benign infarcts.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Results suggested that radiography was not particularly helpful in distinguishing benign from malignancy-associated bone infarcts in dogs.
A 3-year-old 23.9-kg (52.7-lb) mixed-breed spayed female dog was evaluated because of chronic vulvar discharge and tenesmus of 5 months’ duration. The signs were first observed 4 weeks after routine ovariohysterectomy. The dog was bright, alert, and responsive. Body condition score was 4 on a scale from 1 to 5, and vital parameters were within reference range. A large mass in the caudal aspect of the abdomen was palpated, which elicited mild signs of pain from the dog. A moderate volume of serosanguineous vaginal discharge was also present. No external vulvar lesions were present. The dog was mildly anemic,
Objective—To determine concentrations of marbofloxacin
in alveolar macrophages (AMs) and epithelial
lining fluid (ELF) and compare those concentrations
with plasma concentrations in healthy dogs.
Animals—12 adult mixed-breed and purebred
Procedure—10 dogs received orally administered marbofloxacin
at a dosage of 2.75 mg/kg every 24 hours for
5 days. Two dogs served as nontreated controls.
Fiberoptic bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage
procedures were performed while dogs were anesthetized
with propofol, approximately 6 hours after the
fifth dose. The concentrations of marbofloxacin in plasma
and bronchoalveolar fluid (cell and supernatant fractions)
were determined by use of high-performance liquid
chromatography with detection of fluorescence.
Results—Mean ± SD plasma marbofloxacin concentrations
2 and 6 hours after the fifth dose were 2.36 ±
0.52 µg/mL and 1.81 ± 0.21 µg/mL, respectively.
Mean ± SD marbofloxacin concentration 6 hours after
the fifth dose in AMs (37.43 ± 24.61 µg/mL) was significantly
greater than that in plasma (1.81 ± 0.21
µg/mL) and ELF (0.82 ± 0.34 µg/mL), resulting in a
mean AM concentration-to-plasma concentration
ratio of 20.4, a mean AM:ELF ratio of 60.8, and a
mean ELF-to-plasma ratio of 0.46. Marbofloxacin was
not detected in any samples from control dogs.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Marbofloxacin
concentrations in AMs were greater than the mean
inhibitory concentrations of major bacterial pathogens
in dogs. Results indicated that marbofloxacin accumulates
in AMs at concentrations exceeding those
reached in plasma and ELF. The accumulation of marbofloxacin
in AMs may facilitate treatment for susceptible
intracellular pathogens or infections associated
with pulmonary macrophage infiltration. (Am J Vet Res
A 4-year-old spayed female mixed-breed rabbit was evaluated because of a 3-year history of sneezing and nasal discharge that were refractory to medical management.
Signs of chronic left-sided rhinitis and sinusitis were observed on physical examination and confirmed by CT evaluation. Lysis of the rostral aspect of the left maxillary bone and destruction of nasal turbinates were evident on CT images.
TREATMENT AND OUTCOME
Pararhinotomy of the left maxillary sinus through the facies cribrosa was performed. Purulent material was removed from the maxillary sinus recesses, a middle meatal antrostomy was completed to allow permanent drainage into the left middle nasal meatus, and the tissues were closed routinely. Microbial culture of a sample from the maxillary sinus recesses revealed Bordetella bronchiseptica, undetermined fastidious nonenteric bacteria, and Streptococcus viridans. Medical management was continued, and nasal discharge resolved but sneezing persisted. Increased sneezing and bilateral nasal discharge developed 1.5 years later; CT examination revealed right-sided rhinitis, and culture of a nasal swab sample revealed Bordetella spp, Staphylococcus spp, and Micrococcus spp. Right-sided pararhinotomy and middle meatal antrostomy were performed, and medical management continued. A subsequent recurrence was managed without additional surgery; 4 years after the initial surgery, the rabbit was still receiving medical treatment, with mild intermittent nasal discharge and sneezing reported.
This report describes a surgical approach for treatment of chronic rhinitis in companion rabbits with maxillary sinus involvement that included creation of a permanent drainage pathway from the maxillary sinus to the middle nasal meatus.
To identify the degree of left arytenoid cartilage (LAC) abduction that allows laryngeal airflow similar to that in galloping horses, assess 2-D and 3-D biomechanical effects of prosthetic laryngoplasty on LAC movement and airflow, and determine the influence of suture position through the muscular process of the arytenoid cartilage (MPA) on these variables.
7 equine cadaver larynges.
With the right arytenoid cartilage maximally abducted and inspiratory airflow simulated by vacuum, laryngeal airflow and translaryngeal pressure and impedance were measured at 12 incremental LAC abduction forces (0% to 100% [maximum abduction]) applied through laryngoplasty sutures passed caudocranially or mediolaterally through the left MPA. Cross-sectional area of the rima glottis and left-to-right angle quotient were determined from photographs at each abduction force; CT images were obtained at alternate forces. Arytenoid and cricoid cartilage markers allowed calculation of LAC roll, pitch, and yaw through use of Euler angles on 3-D reconstructed CT images.
Translaryngeal pressure and impedance decreased, and airflow increased rapidly at low abduction forces, then slowed until a plateau was reached at approximately 50% of maximum abduction force. The greatest LAC motion was rocking (pitch). Suture position through the left MPA did not significantly affect airflow data. Approximately 50% of maximum abduction force, corresponding to a left arytenoid angle of approximately 30° and left-to-right angle quotient of 0.79 to 0.84, allowed airflow of approximately 61 ± 6.5 L/s.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Ex vivo modeling results suggested little benefit to LAC abduction forces > 50%, which allowed airflow similar to that reported elsewhere for galloping horses.