To assess the time to completion, number of errors, and knot-holding capacity (KHC) for starting and ending square knots (SSKs and ESKs) of a continuous pattern and Aberdeen knots tied by veterinary students and to investigate student perceptions of knot security and knot-tying difficulty for the 3 knot types.
16 second-year veterinary students.
Students created 3 (4-throw) SSKs, 3 (5-throw) ESKs, and 3 (3 + 1 configuration) Aberdeen knots with 2-0 polydioxanone on a custom test apparatus. Time to complete each knot, the number of errors in each knot, and student ratings of knot-tying difficulty and confidence in knot security were recorded. Each knot was tested to failure on a uniaxial tensiometer to determine KHC and mode of failure. Variables of interest were compared by repeated-measures ANOVA or the Friedman test with post hoc pairwise comparisons.
Mean knot completion time for Aberdeen knots was significantly less than mean completion time for SSKs or ESKs. Mean KHC was significantly lower for ESKs than for SSKs; KHC for Aberdeen knots was not compared with these values because of methodological differences. Median error rate was higher for ESKs than for other knot types. Mean difficulty rating for Aberdeen knots was lower than that for ESKs. Most tested knots failed by breakage at the knot.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Aberdeen knots appeared to be easy for veterinary students to learn and were completed more rapidly and with fewer errors than ESKs. Including this type of knot in surgical skills curriculum for novices may be beneficial.
A 7-year-old 31-kg (68.2-lb) sexually intact male English Bulldog was referred for evaluation of severe expiratory dyspnea that was unresponsive to treatment with furosemide. The dog had a history of idiopathic juvenile epilepsy and was currently receiving treatment with phenobarbital (100 mg, PO, q 12 h) and bromide (400 mg, PO, q 12 h). At the referral evaluation, the emergency care provided included administration of cephalexin (30 mg/kg [13.6 mg/lb], IV, q 12 h), enrofloxacin (5 mg/kg [2.27 mg/lb], IV, q 12 h), beclomethasone dipropionate (aerosol, q 8 h), butorphanol tartrate (0.2 mg/kg [0.09 mg/lb], IM, single administration), oxygen
OBJECTIVE To compare tensile strength and time to completion of body wall closure among 3 suture patterns.
SAMPLE Eighteen 5 × 5-cm leather specimens and sixty-eight 5 × 5-cm full-thickness tissue specimens from the ventral portion of the abdominal body wall of 17 canine cadavers.
PROCEDURES During experiment 1 of a 2-experiment study, each leather specimen was cut in half and sutured with a simple interrupted or simple continuous pattern or continuous pattern with intermittent Aberdeen knots (intermittent Aberdeen pattern). During experiment 2, 4 tissue specimens were obtained from each cadaver; the linea alba of 3 specimens was incised and closed with 1 of the 3 suture patterns evaluated in experiment 1, and the fourth specimen was left intact as a control. All leather and tissue specimens underwent mechanical testing. Time to completion, mode of failure, and maximum force at failure (Fmax) were compared among the suture patterns.
RESULTS In experiment 1, the mean Fmax for the simple continuous and intermittent Aberdeen patterns was significantly greater than that for the simple interrupted pattern. In experiment 2, the mean Fmax for specimens obtained cranial to the umbilicus was greater than that for specimens obtained caudal to the umbilicus, and the mean time to completion for both continuous suture patterns was significantly less than that for the simple interrupted pattern. Most (34/51) sutured tissue specimens failed because the suture cut through the tissue at the suture-tissue interface.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that the intermittent Aberdeen pattern may be an alternative for body wall closure in dogs.