To identify potential risk factors for death following IV or intraosseous (IO) administration of contrast medium in birds undergoing CT scans.
120 birds that underwent 134 contrast-enhanced CT scans.
Medical records of birds of any species that underwent a CT scan which included administration of nonionic iodinated contrast medium from June 2013 to February 2020 were included. Information on birds and use of contrast medium was extracted from the medical records as well as information on deaths following IV or IO administration of contrast medium.
6 birds died shortly following administration of contrast medium. Necropsies were performed in 3 birds (2 cockatiels and 1 macaw), and all had lesions associated with the respiratory tract. When body weight was used as a binary variable to compare odds of death between small birds (≤ 150 g [0.33 lb]) and large birds (> 150 g), small birds had a 97-fold increased odds (OR, 97.5; 95% CI, 9.8 to 966.0) of dying following contrast medium administration. Following 131 CT scans with contrast medium administration (3 scans were excluded because of perivascular or subcutaneous leakage of contract medium), small birds had a mortality rate of 45.4% (5/11), compared with a mortality rate of 0.8% (1/120) for large (> 150 g) birds. Other variables (ie, sex, age, anesthesia or sedation, sedation protocol, and type of contrast medium) were not significantly associated with death after contrast medium administration.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Although the administration of contrast medium cannot be conclusively confirmed as the cause of death in these birds, the high mortality rate for small birds coupled with the temporality of the event following contrast medium administration justifies the cautious use of contrast medium in small sick psittacine birds. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2021;259:77–83)
Objective—To describe changes in venous blood gas analytes during isoflurane anesthesia in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus).
Animals—16 black-tailed prairie dogs.
Procedures—Black-tailed prairie dogs were placed in an anesthesia chamber for induction of general anesthesia, which was maintained with isoflurane in oxygen delivered via mask. Immediately following anesthetic induction, a venous blood sample was obtained from the medial saphenous vein; a second venous blood sample was obtained just prior to anesthetic gas shutoff. An evaluation of venous blood gas analytes was performed on each sample. General linear mixed models with repeated measures were used for data analyses.
Results—Median anesthetic time was 90 minutes (range, 60 to 111 minutes). A significant increase from immediately after induction to completion of anesthesia was observed in Pco2 and mean blood chloride ion, BUN, and creatinine concentrations. A decrease in Po2, mean blood pH, and anion gap was observed from induction of anesthesia to completion. No significant differences during anesthesia were observed in mean base excess or blood bicarbonate, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, blood glucose, lactate, and total CO2 concentrations. No complications occurred during or after anesthesia for any animal.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Examination of prairie dogs often requires general anesthesia, with isoflurane currently the inhalation agent of choice. Results suggested respiratory acidosis and relative azotemia may occur during isoflurane anesthesia of prairie dogs. Given the increased risk associated with anesthesia in small mammals and the propensity for respiratory disease in prairie dogs, insight into physiologic changes associated with isoflurane anesthesia in healthy prairie dogs can aid in perioperative evaluation and anesthetic monitoring in this rodent species.
To document the clinical signs, diagnosis, and treatment of urolithiasis in green iguanas (Iguana iguana) and to report on the composition of uroliths from green iguanas submitted to the Minnesota Urolith Center for analysis.
21 green iguanas with urolithiasis.
Medical record databases of multiple veterinary teaching hospitals were searched from 1996 through 2020. Emails were sent to all facilities that submitted a urolith from a green iguana to the Minnesota Urolith Center from 1996 through 2020. Signalment; presenting complaint; physical examination findings; hematologic, biochemical, and diagnostic imaging findings; treatment; necropsy results; and survival times were described for each patient.
Iguanas most commonly presented with nonspecific clinical signs, but 9 of the 21 iguanas had clinical signs associated with the urogenital tract. Twelve iguanas had a palpable mass in the caudal coelom. All uroliths were visible on radiographs. Surgery was performed on 15 iguanas; 3 died secondary to intra- or postoperative complications. Iguanas that underwent surgery had a median survival time of 39 months. Necropsy was performed on 5 iguanas, and urolithiasis contributed to the decision to euthanize or was the cause of death for 4. Uroliths from 132 iguanas were analyzed, and all were composed of 100% uric acid salts.
Green iguanas with urolithiasis may not have clinical signs or physical examination findings associated with the urinary system, and hematologic and biochemical abnormalities are nonspecific. Green iguanas should be routinely examined for uroliths, and surgical treatment should be pursued.
To determine the pharmacokinetic parameters of a high-concentration buprenorphine formulation after a single SC dose in American flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber).
6 healthy adult American flamingos (3 males and 3 females).
A single dose of high-concentration buprenorphine (1.8 mg/kg) was administered SC to all birds. Blood samples were collected at 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours after drug administration between October 14 and October 18, 2022. Plasma buprenorphine concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and a noncompartmental analysis was used to determine pharmacokinetic parameters.
Mean ± SD peak plasma drug concentration (Cmax) was 195.1 ± 187.4 ng/mL, the mean time to peak plasma concentration (Tmax) was 0.32 ± 0.31 hours, the mean area under the concentration-vs-time curve from time 0 to the last measured concentration (AUC0–last) was 881.4 ± 205.4 ng/mL, and mean terminal half-life (t1/2) was 12.6 ± 3.86 hours. Mean plasma buprenorphine concentrations were >1 ng/mL for at least 48 hours after drug administration. No clinically significant adverse effects were observed.
High-concentration buprenorphine dosed at 1.8 mg/kg SC in American flamingos rapidly exceeded plasma drug concentrations reported to have analgesic effects in other avian species and maintained these levels for extended periods. Sedative effects were similar to those reported for other species. Additional studies are needed to evaluate the clinical efficacy of high-concentration buprenorphine at this dose in American flamingos.
To determine the pharmacokinetics of a solution containing cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabidiolic acid (CBDA), administered orally in 2 single-dose studies (with and without food), in the domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus).
6 healthy New Zealand White rabbits.
In phase 1, 6 rabbits were administered 15 mg/kg CBD with 16.4 mg/kg CBDA orally in hemp oil. In phase 2, 6 rabbits were administered the same dose orally in hemp oil followed by a food slurry. Blood samples were collected for 24 hours to determine the pharmacokinetics of CBD and CBDA. Quantification of plasma CBD and CBDA concentrations was determined using a validated liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS) assay. Pharmacokinetics were determined using noncompartmental analysis.
For CBD, the area under the curve extrapolated to infinity (AUC)0–∞ was 179.8 and 102 hours X ng/mL, the maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) was 30.4 and 15 ng/mL, the time to Cmax (tmax) was 3.78 and 3.25 hours, and the terminal half-life (t1/2λ) was 7.12 and 3.8 hours in phase 1 and phase 2, respectively. For CBDA, the AUC0–∞ was 12,286 and 6,176 hours X ng/mL, Cmax was 2,573 and 1,196 ng/mL, tmax was 1.07 and 1.12 hours, and t1/2λ was 3.26 and 3.49 hours in phase 1 and phase 2, respectively. Adverse effects were not observed in any rabbit.
CBD and CBDA reached a greater Cmax and had a longer t1/2λ in phase 1 (without food) compared with phase 2 (with food). CBDA reached a greater Cmax but had a shorter t1/2λ than CBD both in phase 1 and phase 2. These data may be useful in determining appropriate dosing of cannabinoids in the domestic rabbit.
CASE DESCRIPTION A 4-year-old sexually intact male pet guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) was evaluated for a routine wellness examination.
CLINICAL FINDINGS During physical examination, a small mass was palpated in the cranial aspect of the abdomen. Abdominal radiographic and ultrasonographic findings were suggestive of a gastric mass. Cytologic evaluation of a fine-needle aspirate of the mass was indicative of spindle cell proliferation most consistent with a sarcoma.
TREATMENT AND OUTCOME The patient was anesthetized, and an exploratory laparotomy and partial gastrectomy were performed to resect the gastric mass. Histologic and immunohistochemical examinations of the mass revealed that it was a gastric leiomyoma. The patient recovered from surgery without complications. No evidence of mass recurrence was observed during an abdominal ultrasonographic examination performed approximately 19 months after surgery.
CLINICAL RELEVANCE To our knowledge, this was the first report of the clinical diagnosis and successful surgical treatment of a gastric neoplasm in a guinea pig. Gastric leiomyomas are not uncommon in guinea pigs, and although benign, they can cause clinical signs if they become large enough to impair gastric function. Gastrointestinal surgery should be considered as a treatment option for guinea pigs with similar gastric neoplasms.
To retrospectively evaluate the prevalence and clinical progression of wobbly hedgehog syndrome (WHS) and concurrent incidence of neoplasia in a cohort of African pygmy hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris).
CLINICAL PRESENTATION AND PROCEDURES
Medical records of hedgehogs from 7 institutions across the US over a 20-year period (2000 to 2020) were retrospectively reviewed. Inclusion criteria were hedgehogs of any sex or age with postmortem CNS histopathology consistent with WHS. Collected data included sex, age at onset and euthanasia, major histopathologic findings, reported neurologic clinical signs, and treatments administered.
24 males and 25 females were included. Fifteen of 49 (31%) individuals had subclinical WHS with no reported antemortem neurologic clinical signs. In neurologically affected (clinical) hedgehogs (n = 34), the mean ± SD age at onset was 3.3 ± 1.5 years with a median (range) time from onset to euthanasia of 51 days (1 to 319 days). In neurologically affected hedgehogs, the most commonly reported clinical signs were ataxia (n = 21) and pelvic limb paresis (16) and the most commonly administered treatment was meloxicam (13). Overall, 31 of 49 (63%) hedgehogs had a concurrent histopathologic diagnosis of neoplasia outside of the CNS.
The prognosis for hedgehogs with WHS is poor. No treatment had a significant effect on survival time, and neoplasia was a common comorbidity in the current cohort. A small but clinically relevant subset of neurologically normal hedgehogs had a histopathologic diagnosis of WHS.