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  • Author or Editor: Sara L. Roberts x
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Objective—To determine whether thalidomide inhibits the growth of primary and pulmonary metastatic canine osteosarcoma in mice after xenotransplantation.

Animals—Athymic nude mice.

Procedure—Canine osteosarcoma cells were injected SC in 50 mice. Mice were randomly placed into the following groups: control group (n = 13; DMSO [drug vehicle] alone [0.1 mL/d, IP]); low-dose group (12; thalidomide [100 mg/kg, IP]), mid-dose group (13; thalidomide [200 mg/kg, IP]); and high-dose group (12; thalidomide [400 mg/kg, IP]). Starting on day 8, treatments were administered daily and tumor measurements were performed for 20 days. On day 28, mice were euthanatized and primary tumors were weighed. Lungs were examined histologically to determine the number of mice with metastasis and tumor emboli. Mean area of the pulmonary micrometastatic foci was determined for mice from each group.

Results—Primary tumor size and weight were not significantly different among groups. The number of mice in the mid-dose (200 mg/kg) and high-dose (400 mg/kg) groups with micrometastasis was significantly less than the number of control group mice; however, the number of mice with tumor emboli was not affected by thalidomide treatment. Size of micrometastasis lesions was not affected by thalidomide treatment.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Mean area of micrometastases was not affected by treatment; however, growth of micrometastases had not yet reached an angiogenesis-dependent size. Although thalidomide did not affect growth of primary tumors in mice after xenotransplantation of canine osteosarcoma cells, our findings indicate that thalidomide may interfere with the ability of embolic tumor cells to complete the metastatic process within the lungs. ( Am J Vet Res 2004;65:659–664)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To compare neutralizing antibody response between horses vaccinated against West Nile virus (WNV) and horses that survived naturally occurring infection.

Design—Cross-sectional observational study.

Animals—187 horses vaccinated with a killed WNV vaccine and 37 horses with confirmed clinical WNV infection.

Procedure—Serum was collected from vaccinated horses prior to and 4 to 6 weeks after completion of an initial vaccination series (2 doses) and 5 to 7 months later. Serum was collected from affected horses 4 to 6 weeks after laboratory diagnosis of infection and 5 to 7 months after the first sample was obtained. The IgM capture ELISA, plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT), and microtiter virus neutralization test were used.

Results—All affected horses had PRNT titers ≥ 1:100 at 4 to 6 weeks after onset of disease, and 90% (18/20) maintained this titer for 5 to 7 months. After the second vaccination, 67% of vaccinated horses had PRNT titers ≥ 1:100 and 14% had titers < 1:10. Five to 7 months later, 33% (28/84) of vaccinated horses had PRNT titers ≥ 1:100, whereas 29% (24/84) had titers < 1:10. Vaccinated and clinically affected horses' end point titers had decreased by 5 to 7 months after vaccination.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A portion of horses vaccinated against WNV may respond poorly. Vaccination every 6 months may be indicated in certain horses and in areas of high vector activity. Other preventative methods such as mosquito control are warranted to prevent WNV infection in horses. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226:240–245)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association